• First: the identification of areas of destruction in the region:
And can be divided into three regions.
a) The destruction of a whole region:
The buildings of this undergo total destruction. This means the large amount of debris filling the roads and prevents access to the affected area in addition to the destruction of bridges and damaging the roads.
b) A region of a medium destruction:
The old and weak buildings are followed by destructions and damaging except for the strong buildings, in addition to the passing on the roads would be difficult for the presence of the rubble, but the removal is easier than its predecessor.
c) The surrounding area:
There is no collapse or destroyed and roads are secured after the debris of glass and some things that are not fixed.
• Second: specifying the lanes to enter the affected building:
According to the quality of materials used in buildings and the size of the rubble and debris, the corridors are identified and the best in this case is that the entry into these buildings should be through the windows and doors, but if that was not possible to may have risks on the rescuers, corridors were identified to ensure the safety and security of rescuers and the trapped.
• Third: ensure the safety of the area of operations:
The dangers faced by the rescue team differ according to the causes of the collapse, for this the team has to wear protective clothing and take into consideration all the cautions to ensure their safety as much as possible.
1) Evaluation (discovery):
the assessment of the necessary tools to lift the rubble and a sufficient number of men to free the trapped and the dead according to the quantity of debris, and the breadth of destruction area and the number of victims and geographical conditions and climate.
Inspection must be done according to an organized scientific way in order to cover all the rubble, so the region is divided into boxes and signs are used on the buildings in which research took place and in order to avoid the repetition of research.
- Signs used during the inspection of the buildings:
Distinctive markings are used to indicate to the observations noted by the inspection team, and which must be cleared in an obvious place so it can be seen by other members of the inspection team, in order not to re-inspect the building again.
The green circle: the place is being searched where no revival or dead bodies are left.
The black circle: a building ready to collapse.
Yellow line: gas, water, and electricity are cut off from the building.
Wavy line: there is water inside available to be used.
3) The debris removal
The lifting of the debris from the roads to secure it for the functioning of vehicles and individuals involved in the operations and to maintain the public safety, and as well as lifting the rubble of the buildings to free the trapped.
• Key points that the rescue man should identify it before the start of the rescue operations by aircraft:
1) Observations of the wind direction and the nature of the region terrain, and according to this it can identify the entrance of the trucks and rescue equipment and to locate the evacuation point.
2) Identify the site of the entrances according to the entrance of the airport.
3) To locate the fire location in the plane if found, and the observation of the influencing.
4) To determine the degree of seriousness of the flow of fuel, if any.
5) To locate the passengers and crew location.
6) Ensure the actual number of passengers traveling in the plane due to the reality proof of the airline company and air surveillance.
7) Location of the dangerous goods and if it is transferred, if there any.
8) Identify the causes of the accident to make sure that the accident was not caused by a collision by a building or any other plane, and there may be members other than the passengers were injured and in need of a rescue operation.
9) the commander must know the following:
a) The Way of the distribution of seats in the plane.
b) Specific points to cut.
c) Sites of the fuel tank
d) The number of emergency exits and their location according to the type of the plane.