رقم الدفاع المدنى 998



• Rescue

Elements to be taken into account when forming rescue teams:
-> Population density. 
-> The type of buildings. 
-> The degree of the contact buildings and the widening geographical area. 
-> The type of the danger and the how much the region can be subjected to it. 
-> Organizational construction of the rescue. 
-> General rules for rescue operations.
-> Rescue Operations Command from under the rubble.

1) Population density:
The greater the number of people in a region increased the need to increase rescue teams for the probability of the increase of the risk of casualties in the event of an accident to Allah forbid. And the regions of high buildings have more risk than those specialized for the residential use. 

 2) Type of buildings:
The constructional material of the buildings control to a large in the formation of rescue teams, according to the type of danger facing the region's, such as the concrete buildings is more resistible from the mud buildings with wooden roofs, for the risk of the earthquakes for example, and this what might reduce the need for manpower in the initial, and increase in the second, we just need heavy equipment to lift The rubble of when the concrete buildings collapse, while the need for rescue operations in the mud buildings, also the need is urgent for the high ladders in rescue in the high multi-storey, but in the buildings made of one floor, the kind of the ladder will be with one or two links.

3) The degree of the contact buildings and the widening of the geographical area:
The danger increases when there is a cluster of buildings, where the danger from fire or the leak poisonous substance or a chemical gas or explosive or a bomb in an area of contiguous buildings is more than if the buildings apart, the presence of many rescue teams to the first region is essential, while it is not required to increase the number of teams in the second zone, as had the need for a rapid transition with no doubt that the region must be widened.

4) Kind of the anticipated danger and the degree of the region to be subjected to:
The different risks that threat the region make it necessary to have trained teams to fight such risks in case it was separated or gathered. And perhaps it is worth here to mention that some countries deal with one particular aspect of the rescue according to the danger that threats continuously. Those that are located in the active areas of earthquakes is interested in the development of the capacity of the rescue team to ensure the accuracy and speed in performance to meet this danger and work to secure the means and equipment to help detect trapped under the rubble and debris removal. And for those countries located on the banks of rivers, which threatened by flood, so it starts to get ready and preparing the rescue teams and the staff working in it with equipment and machinery that contribute to the reduction of the harm of the floods.


• Salvation Building organizational:
There is not a unified global organization admits a unified number per unit or team, for the States have differed in the selection of the best number for the rescue unit, and it also differed in the number of such units which consists a rescue team. but it is almost unanimity in specifying a program specialized for the rescue man and rescue tasks entrusted to him, has carefulness  was apparently in their unanimity of the following:

First the specialization factor:
The notification of the risks and the increasing extent of the damage caused by it enforced that the two factors in the teams and the units of the specialists in this field is specialized to rescue those who are trapped under the rubble, and others to the for ice and landslides, and the third of the sea save, and thus, but after he has a good background information on the specialties of civil defense. And this specializing requires serious responsibility placed on a rescue and to be able with a big degree from performing his work quickly and accurately for the protection of those infected and to reduce the number of victims.

 Second: punishing the sinner and reward the confronter:
It is a principle that should not be overlooked especially in this profession that is surrounded by danger from all sides, and the states that have the civil defense work have agreed on the official organizations on its necessity and if it is different in the way that can implement it in each state according to their economic and social development.

• General rules for rescue operations:

First: the identification of areas of destruction in the region:
And can be divided into three regions.

a) The destruction of a whole region:
The buildings of this undergo total destruction. This means the large amount of debris filling the roads and prevents access to the affected area in addition to the destruction of bridges and damaging the roads.

b) A region of a medium destruction:
The old and weak buildings are followed by destructions and damaging except for the strong buildings, in addition to the passing on the roads would be difficult for the presence of the rubble, but the removal is easier than its predecessor.

c) The surrounding area:
There is no collapse or destroyed and roads are secured after the debris of glass and some things that are not fixed.

• Second: specifying the lanes to enter the affected building:
According to the quality of materials used in buildings and the size of the rubble and debris, the corridors are identified and the best in this case is that the entry into these buildings should be through the windows and doors, but if that was not possible to may have risks on the rescuers, corridors were identified to ensure the safety and security of rescuers and the trapped.

• Third: ensure the safety of the area of operations:
The dangers faced by the rescue team differ according to the causes of the collapse, for this the team has to wear protective clothing and take into consideration all the cautions to ensure their safety as much as possible.

 • Rescue operations command from the rubble:

1) Evaluation (discovery):
the assessment of the necessary tools to lift the rubble and a sufficient number of men to free the trapped and the dead according to the quantity of debris, and the breadth of destruction area and the number of victims and geographical conditions and climate.

2) Inspection
Inspection must be done according to an organized scientific way in order to cover all the rubble, so the region is divided into boxes and signs are used on the buildings in which research took place and in order to avoid the repetition of research. 
- Signs used during the inspection of the buildings:
Distinctive markings are used to indicate to the observations noted by the inspection team, and which must be cleared in an obvious place so it can be seen by other members of the inspection team, in order not to re-inspect the building again.
The green circle: the place is being searched where no revival or dead bodies are left.
The black circle: a building ready to collapse.
Yellow line: gas, water, and electricity are cut off from the building.
Wavy line: there is water inside available to be used.

3) The debris removal
The lifting of the debris from the roads to secure it for the functioning of vehicles and individuals involved in the operations and to maintain the public safety, and as well as lifting the rubble of the buildings to free the trapped.

• Key points that the rescue man should identify it before the start of the rescue operations by aircraft:

1) Observations of the wind direction and the nature of the region terrain, and according to this it can identify the entrance of the trucks and rescue equipment and to locate the evacuation point.
2) Identify the site of the entrances according to the entrance of the airport.
3) To locate the fire location in the plane if found, and the observation of the influencing.
4) To determine the degree of seriousness of the flow of fuel, if any.
5) To locate the passengers and crew location.
6) Ensure the actual number of passengers traveling in the plane due to the reality proof of the airline company and air surveillance.
7) Location of the dangerous goods and if it is transferred, if there any.
8) Identify the causes of the accident to make sure that the accident was not caused by a collision by a building or any other plane, and there may be members other than the passengers were injured and in need of a rescue operation.
9) the commander must know the following:
   a) The Way of the distribution of seats in the plane. 
   b) Specific points to cut.
   c) Sites of the fuel tank
   d) The number of emergency exits and their location according to the type of the plane.