رقم الدفاع المدنى 998

Protective requirements from fire in facilities


• Protective requirements from fire in facilities:

 1-1  General
 1-1/1  Address: this list is known as the list of ‘safety requirements from fire’, and it s referred to in this document as ‘list’ or this list’.
1-1/2  Purpose: the purpose of this list is to specify the minimum requirements of safety against fire to protect the souls of the users of the building, without impeding their daily using of the premise.
1-1/3          Field:
1-1/3/1            This list is concerned in the requirements of soul saving from fire and any relative emergency case.
1-1/3/2       Take into consideration that in this list is that the panic situation is caused because of fire in the building, through the requirements designed to eliminate panic in emergency times.
 1-1/3/3        To take into consideration while setting this list the following points:
 1-1/3/3/1  The ability of the structural construction in resisting fire.
 1-1/3/3/2  Kinds and levels of fire.
 1-1/3/3/3  The type of those who uses the building and how much they count.
 1-1/3/3/4  Kind of activities that are carried in the premises.
 1-1/3/4  To put in the list the minimum requirements for designing the ways to escape (emergency exits) for the users of e building to a safer places whether it was inside or outside the building.
 1-1/3/5  It was taken into accounts that the escaping ways weren’t the only factor in [reserving lives that are mentioned in the list, as for the list doesn’t address all the considerations, for example it doesn’t deal with public awareness that is considered one of the factors of preserving lives.
 1-1/3/6  The list doesn’t take into account personal accidents such as falling on the ground, which is caused by the lack of awareness of the users to the safety terms. As well as the list focused on soul preserving from fire as a basement of its requirements, on the contrary to the property preservation.
 1-1/3/7  This regulation is not a list on the conditions of constructions, but t is used with the list of orders of structure.
 1-1/3/8  This list is not being set to preserve the souls of those who intend or by accident set on fire, or those that are near the fire location.
 1-1/4  Application procedures:
 1-1/4/1  This list is applied on all the buildings that get its license after the starting of this list.
 1-1/4/2  It’s not practical in most of the time to apply this list on the existing  buildings, and in such a case the civil defense has the right to request for more equipments or alternatives for some preventive precautions in accordance to this regulation.
 1-1/4/3  The civil defense has the right when he get the license for constructing or operating to ask for extra equipments or alternatives for some preventive precautions in accordance to this regulation.
 1-1/4/4  Any new additions for the exiting building must be subjected to the requirements and conditions of these terms.
 1-1/4/5  When a building contains two or more activities or using and in which they vary in their level about danger, and in which we can’t separate, in this case the requirements that mostly ensure safety will be applied on the activities or different using.
 1-1/4/6  None of the requirements are forbidden concerning the design, installing, using better kinds to protect from fire, making more than one emergency exits, or any tools that may positively affect on the protection of the users, or any other equipments that will have the same role as mentioned by the terms, under a condition that it should provide the civil defense with the necessary documentaries that ensure the efficiency of the alternative.
 1-1/4/7  The system, equipments, ad tools of protection must be maintained to ensure its permanent and high efficient work.
 1-1/5  Operating and the using of the building:
 1-1/5/1  The buildings that have its constructional license after the work of his list, is prohibited from being used if it was contrary to the requirements of this regulation.
 1-1/5/2  The buildings that exist before these regulations can be used under a condition that they should have the following terms:
 1-1/5/2/1  There shouldn’t be a real apparent danger  that affect the lives of he users.
 1-1/5/2/2  The classification and activity of the building must not change, for if there were any changes then the terms must be applied directly.
 1-1/5/2/3  As long as the escape ways are still available, and the safety system against fire works as usual, so the building could be used during it maintenance or during its fixing period.
 1-1/6  the principles of design:
 1-1/6/1  The aim of this list as it was mentioned before focuses on the safety of the users, without impeding any of their daily use, and this goal is reached through ensuring to apply at least the minimum of the safety requirements to protect from fire. And here is some points:
 1-1/6/2  Must take into account that the structure and the building must be designed, well coordinate, supporting, and safeguarded to avoid the lives of the users the danger of fire, smoke, fumes and panic in emergency situations, and to allow the users to evacuate the building in cases of fire.
 1-1/6/3  Make sure the structure of the building is capable of handling the effects of fire during the evacuation period from the users.
 1-1/6/4  Make sure during designing the building and before constructing it that the escape ways (emergency exits) are available and fits every building or facility, concerning the number, capacity, location, rise, kinds of substances used, and to take into consideration the type of the building, its users, and safety equipments against fire.
 1-1/6/5  To ensure that the emergency exits do exists and not through counting on the ways to fight fire.
 1-1/6/6  Its not always necessary, to totally evacuate the building to escape fire, for there might be in the building a horizontal evacuating zone that is protected from fire, gas leaks from the floors or any other part of the building. These places provide a relative safety up till the emergency case is over.
 1-1/6/7  During deign make sure that the escaping ways are free from any obstacle and the way the doors open goes with the way of escape.
 1-1/6/8  Make sure to put the signs that show the escaping ways in order to prevent confusion during the evacuation period.
 1-1/6/9  Make sure that there will be enough lights, alarm system that fits with the building, and the isolation of the vertical openings from the rest of the building.
 1-1/6/10  Make sure that the minimum safety requirements are available.
 1-1/6/11  Give more chances in the design process in order to provide more protection to keep on using the building,
 1-2  Classification of the buildings and facilities,
 1-2/1  Buildings are classified in two ways: first through the nature of its use, second according to the dangers of its contents.
 1-2/1/1  The facilities are classified according to the nature of its usage into the following groups:
 1-2/1/1/1  Collective buildings
 1-2/1/1/2  Educational buildings
 1-2/1/1/3  Health and social care premises
 1-2/1/1/4  Residential buildings
 1-2/1/1/5  Commercial buildings and public markets
 1-2/1/1/6  Industrial and industrial occupational buildings
 1-2/1/1/7  Storage building and parking
 1-2/1/1/8  Building of special character
 1-2/2  Each of the groups have several  types of buildings that have similar activities and collectives, such as:
 1-2/1/1/1  Collective buildings: are the buildings or part of them that are specified in the gathering of fifty people for the purpose of entertainment, culture, or sports like:
 1-2/1/1/2  Educational buildings: it is for the purpose of teaching, and it contains six regular time students at least four hours a day and not less than twelve hours a week, such as kindergartens, pre-primary schools, elementary up till secondary schools, and vocational  schools.
 1-2/1/1/3  The health and social care premises: it is for the purpose of the health and social care in which its users are incapable of movement or they are under arrest, as well as the hospitals and elderly care home, kindergartens, children social; welfare and that of the mental health and prison.
 1-2/1/1/4  Residential buildings: it is specified for housing or accommodation.
The residential buildings are divided into several categories according to the type of exploitation:
 1-2/1/1/4/1  Buildings consisting of permanent housing units for the same family (apartments) such as housing investments.
 1-2/1/1/4/2  Buildings consisting of rooms or dormitories for permanent individual or collective housing such as students’, staff’s workers’, and soldiers’ housing.
 1-2/1/1/4/3  Buildings consisting of rooms for temporary accommodation with or without paying such as hotels, motels, guest house, and furnished apartments.
 1-2/1/1/4/4  Private housing such as small villas or private castles.
 1-2/1/1/5  Commercial buildings and public markets: it is for public service (shops), or that its users do not exceed 50 people at one time and it is specialized for the usage of offices.
Stores wholesale and retails, occupational services such as: shopping centers, tailoring hairdressing shops, supermarkets, photography shops, business and service offices, small banks, institutional offices, company offices, consulting and engineering offices, and real estate offices.
 1-2/1/1/6  Industrial facilities and industrial shops: it is specified in industrial purposes in which there s installation, mixing, and  packaging, or where reforms takes place in the industrial occupations, including:
 1-2/1/1/7  Storage buildings and parking it is for storing raw materials, the manufactured products, or semi processed.
 1-2/1/1/8  Buildings of special characters: are those buildings that contain different types of premises such as towers, high buildings, cellars (underground buildings).
 1-2/1/2  Facilities are classified according to the danger of its contents to the following categories: light danger, medium danger, and high danger.

• Classifying the buildings and facilities according to terms of seriousness:

 Seriousness level  Description
 light danger  The buildings that have a weak combustion of its contents in which it is unlikely to have a self-fire, and thus the potential seriousness is revealed in the panic situations, overcrowding at the exits during  exposure to fire and fumes from outer sources.
 medium danger  It is the buildings that have its contents burn due to the rapid medium spread of fire, or that release a great amount of toxic fumes without having any explosions.
 high danger  Buildings that have their contents burn at a very high speed, or release toxic fumes or explosions.

Table 1-1 

 1-3  Documentary courses for licensing construction and use:
 1-3/1  The documentary courses are left for special licensing concerning facilities that are subjected to the fire protection in buildings due to laws and regulations and that is applied by every country related to the council
 1-4  Design, supervising, and implementation:
 1-4/1        The ideas of design, supervising, and implementation for the laws and regulations used by every country of the council.
1-5       Requirements for organizing the location for fire prevention. 
 1-5/1  When offering the plans of the location in order to have the approval requires compliance to the system of construction in addition to giving a clear details of the location and the important locations, relative buildings and its type of usage, with the importance of giving the name of the surrounding streets.
 1-5/2  The focusing of the building and specifying its distance from other buildings is done through the approval of the civil defense and that is due to the nature of use.
 1-5/3  Take into consideration that cars must arrive easily in addition to the equipments of the civil defense to the nearest point to the construction.
 1-5/4  Take into account while focusing on many buildings such as compounds, the following:
 1-5/4/1  The need to provide adequate internal streets.
 1-5/4/2  Civil defense cars should reach the place easily.
 1-5/4/3  Providing adequate entrance and exits for the cars.
 1-5/4/4  The importance of distributing water nozzles round the buildings.
 1-5/5  Twenty percent of the industrial area should be left in order to be used in the means of protection from fire, and this is done after the approval of the civil defense through the establishment of natural separations between the buildings of the same region, or between those buildings and others from another region.
 1-5/6  The arrival of the equipments an vehicles of the civil defense:
 1-5/6/1  Providing adequate roads and streets to allow the arrival of the vehicles and the equipments of the civil defense.
 1-5/6/2  It is required in the street or road for the passing of the civil defense vehicles the following:
 1-5/6/2/1  Its net width must not be less than four meters
 1-5/6/2/2  Providing a sufficient maneuvering space at least 18m in diameter.
 1-5/6/2/3  The gates and the entrance to the streets and roads must not be less than 4.5m in height.
 1-5/6/2/4  The ground and the inspecting chambers are established in a way to bear the different cars of the civil defense.
 1-5/6/3          The necessary dimension is being calculated between the building and the nearest point that must be reached by the civil defense vehicles are according  to the kind and the size of the building:
 1-5/6/3/1  The dimension does not exceed more than 17m fro the buildings equipped with a network of dry nozzles for fire fighting.
 1-5/6/3/2  In the buildings equipped with a network of water nozzles for firefighting, the dimension away from the entrance of the stairs should not exceed 17m.
 1-5/6/3/3  The dimensions should not exceed in the buildings that have more than two floors, and no danger in 46m from any point of the ground floor of the building.
 1-5/6/3/4  The dimensions should not exceed in normal buildings that consist from three to four floors and its area exceeds 139m2, or 28m from any point in the ground floor.
 1-5/6/3/5  If the rise of the buildings doesn’t exceed four floors, and its area exceeds 139m2 or if t was for industrial use, for this the cars of the civil defense must reach into 5 to 6 meters as the height of one building’s facet. But if the height of the building is more than what is mentioned, then the cars must reach for 5-6 meters as the height of two buildings’ facet or more according to the kind and the seriousness of fire and the estimates of he civil defense.
 1-5/7  The arrival of the civil defense men.
 1-5/7/1  The construction of the building should be provided with means and capabilities that allow the civil defense men from coming in easily to do their control and rescue work.
 1-5/7/2  Barriers and obstacles must not be found on the outside sides of the windows that are found above the ground floor if they weren’t easy to conquest and under the specific approval of the civil defense.
 1-5/7/3  Take into consideration when setting the equipments specialized for helping the civil defense men such as fire nozzles and others like:
 1-5/7/3/1  To let the equipments that are set to help the civil men to be provided in a obvious place so the civil defense men can reach it without any hindrance.
 1-5/7/3/2  To let the equipments designed for the help of the civil defense away from fire danger, glass, and scattered substances in the building and other seriousness.
 1-5/7/3/3  To distinguish the fire fighting equipments designed for their help with clear and explicit signals.
 1-5/7/3/4  Take into consideration the applied conditions and specifications to be identical to the equipments of different types of fire fighting.
 1-5/7/4  If it was needed to build a basement ( floor under the ground’s level), there should be emergency openings (entrance and exits) in the aim of getting rd of the smoke or struggling to help the fire fighters taking into consideration the following:
 1-5/7/4/1  To be in a place that is obvious with an affordable access to the civil defense officials.
 1-5/7/4/2  Distinguish the emergency holes with the necessary guidance plates and by mentioning the aim of its presence.
 1-5/7/4/3  To be covered with substances that enables the fire fighters to open or break it easily when needed.
 1-5/7/5  If the area of the location exceeds 5,000m2, so another entrance must be provided for emergency in the outside fence of the location in order to facilitate the arrival of the civil defense.
 1-5/7/6  A planned guidance should be set in a framework at the main entrance of the building, in which all of the information is shown and that are related to the requirements of safety from fire.
 1-5/7/7  Put the necessary traffic guidance signs to prevent standing in the parking or streets specified for the vehicles of the civil defense.
 1-6  Structural requirements and constructional substances:
 1-6/1  Goal: the safety requirements in the structural fields aim towards affording safety of the construction against the danger of fire in which it leads to:
 1-6/1/1  Resisting the buildings from collapsing because of fire, for a certain period of time, which is enough to evacuate the building and fight the fire.
 1-6/1/2  Control over the fire inside the building in less space as possible, and preventing it from spreading from and to other buildings.
 1-6/2  Structural classification of the buildings: the buildings are classified according to how much its structure can resist fire, as shown in table 2-1’classificaion of buildings is set upon its resistance’.
 1-6/3  Specifications of the building materials:
1-6/3/1 The properties of the materials or its composition that is used as structural elements in buildings are identified, depending on the degree of vulnerability to fire.

• Classifying buildings according to their resistance to fire:

 Building materials  gender  Fire-resisting building  Structural description Examples 

     incombustible

 The first  3-4 hours  Made up of incombustible materials or fire-resistant in an adequate degree  Buildings that are totally made from cement bricks may have in its construction iron elements to give the same degree of resisting
 Second  1-2 hours  It’s mostly made from incombustible materials, and it is irresistible o fire, but it is dealt with to give the required degree of fire resistance.  It is the building that have iron in its structure which is dealt with to give a certain degree of resistance, such as (hanajar) in the industrial and storing places, old made buildings that been constructed from materials or elements recently manufactures with a limited resisting ability to fire.
 third  Irresistible  Like the second type, but the elements of the iron structure aren’t dealt with, so the building isn’t capable of resisting fire.  In the industrial places and storing ones, and it is the most spread in these areas.

   combustible

 Fourth  1-2 hours  It is formed of incombustible substances and in fact resisting to fire. There are substances in its structure that are ready to combust with a low degree of fire resistance.  Like buildings made up from cement bricks and some wood elements (structure of the roof) that is dealt with to give a limited degree of resistance such as gym and game rooms.
 fifth  Irresistible  Made from substances that are ready to combust and irresistible to fire or any other unknown substances.  Buildings that are not found in the (first and fourth) types, and buildings that don’t have any standards of fire resisting.

• Control over the spread of fire:

 

 1-7            In order to control the size of fire and keep it in the smallest area as possible, and prohibiting it from spreading inside the affected building itself or to the near buildings, the safety requirements should be provided to curb the fire from expanding.
 1-7/1    The building or the floor must be dissected to separate parts called ‘sectors that prevent the spreading of fire’.
 1-7/1/1             The area or size must not exceed the allowed average in the table dividing the buildings into sectors to prevent the spread of fire. And the design of the sectors resistible to fire according to the table number 1-3 ‘splitting the buildings into sectors to prevent the expand of fire.

Dissecting the buildings into independent fire sectors.
Figure 1-1
Fire sectors and barriers for preventing the spread of fire.
Figure 2-1

• Sectioning the buildings into sectors that prevent the spread of fire:

   Number    usage    Maximum limit   Notes 
 Area m2 Size m3 
 1  Buildings communities  7,000

 -

 
 2  Educational buildings

 -

 2,000  Every educational season is considered to be a secondary independent section.
 3  Care premises

 -

 2,000  Suite and clinks are considered to be a secondary independent section.
 4  residential buildings

 -

 3.000  Every housing unit is considered to be a secondary independent section.
 5  Shops

 -

 2.000  Each rented unit is considered to be secondary independent section.
 6  Offices

 -

 3,000  Each rented unit is considered to be secondary independent section.
 Number  usage  Area m2 (basements or higher floors)

 Area m2

 Notes
 7  High-risk industrial facilities

 500

 1,000  The factories manufacture or assemble or produce substances either combustible or explosion or releasing toxic gases.
 8  Shops of medium danger  1,500  5,000  The factories that manufacture or assemble or produce substances that are incombustible or the workshops that reform.
 9  Storing ( a-light danger)  1,500  5,000  Warehouses that store incombustible substances.
 10  Storing (b- medium danger)  1,000  3,000  Warehouse that stores combustible or incombustible substances covered with products that are flammable.
 11  Storing (c- high danger)  500  1,000  Warehouses that store dangerous substances.
 12  Car parking

 -

 5,000  

Table 3-1

 1-7/1/2  Regardless the spaces that were mentioned in the previous chart 1-3 ‘sectioning the buildings into sectors preventing the expand of fire’ m each unit of the following units is considered to be an independent fire sector.
 1-7/1/2/1 Floor in the multi-storey buildings. 
 1-7/1/2/2  The unit area of a different use of the nature of use of the building.
 1-7/1/2/3  The vertical space in the buildings, such as the stairwell.
 1-7/1/2/4        Emergency exits that are approved by the building, such as the protected lobby and the corridors.
 1-7/1/2/5  The dangerous places, such as the locations used to store liquids and easy combustible substances.
 1-7/1/2/6  The building that is adjacent to the borders of the neighbors is considered to be an anti-fire unit.
 1-7/1/3  If the building was used for more than one reason,  then the one section specified for every purpose is considered to be a fire preventive sector no matter how its area is.
 1-7/2      Barriers that prevent the fire from expanding.
 1-7/2/1    The sectors that prevent the spread of fire must be separated, by structural elements called (barriers against the expanding of fire) that is made up of an incombustible substance, and that have the resistance degree that was mentioned in the chart number 1-4 ‘the elements of the structural buildings with its minimum level of resisting fire’.

 

                 Elements of construction    
Classification of the buildings (table 1-2) 
     
 First  Second  Third Fourth   Fifth
         The resistance degree in hours    

External Walls                    

The separating distance from next building more than  15m

 Holding

 4

 1

 -

 Unholding

 -

 -

 -

 -

 -

 The separating distance from next building from 5m to 15m

 Holding

 4

 2

 Unholding

 1

 -

 -

 1

 -

  The separating distance from next building less than 5m  

 Holding

 4

 Unholding

 2

2

 The structural construction    

 4

 2

 -

 2

 1

 The inner  carrier walls    

 3

 The inner fixed walls    

 1

 Vertical vacuum    

 2

 2

 1

 2

 -

 The stones that cover the ceiling and the floor    

 2

 2

 1

 2

 -

 The roof structure    

 2

 1

-

 1

 -

 Barriers that prevent the fire from expanding  

 According to the table 1-5 and the conditions of the first part.   

Table 4-1

 1-7/2/2  

 When the sectors that prevent the expand of fire is a fire barrier only, the resistance must be fitting according to the type of danger, according to the resistance degree chart concerning the preventive barriers according to the seriousness degree in the sectors they separate.

 

• The degree of resistance of the barriers to the spread of fire

According to the seriousness degree in the sectors that are separated by them.

 The numbers resemble the resistance degree       The type of seriousness in the fire sector (b)     
 light  medium  High
     Kind of seriousness   light

 1

 2

 4 

  medium

 2

 2

 4

  High

 4

 4

 4

 Table number 5-1

 1-7/2/3  The barriers must make a real practical dam that forbids the penetrating of fire and smoke, and so on to cover the entire sector, from wall t wall, breaking any vacuum behind or within the cavity, from the floor to the ceiling, according to the hidden vacuum.
 1-7/2/4   Holes are allowed to be found in the preventing barriers according to the following conditions:
1-7/2/4/1  If the holes were covered by preventive doors or windows to fire in the required degree.
 1-7/2/4/2  The wholes specified for the passage of the pipes should be limited to what is enough, with filling any gap or vacuum around the pipes with preventive substances to fire.
 1-7/2/4/3  It is required in the openings in the barriers that have four hours degree in resisting that the area of one of them should not exceed 12m2, and the total of its width should not be more than 25% of the total height of the barrier, and these measures are doubled when the place is being protected with an automatic network water machine according to the approval of the civil defense.

Figure 3-1

 1-7/3  The hidden vacuum: to continue dividing the buildings into fire sectors to prevent the spread of fire among them:
 1-7/3/1  This dissection must contain the entire hidden vacuum behind or above or between or inside the structural elements and gaps filling.
 1-7/3/2  The gaps or vacuum must be filled during the construction like the walls, ceilings, or the floors at their parties, and around the holes and at the meeting point with the elements of construction with preventive substances to fire which is approved, with the exception of the insulating materials that are incombustible that is found in the vacuum of the walls.
 1-73/3  Al l the vacuum that is found behind the structural elements must be divided by barriers preventing fire from spreading. It is the vacuum of the ceiling or under the last roof of the building or under the floor, behind the walls and so on.
 1-7/3/4  This vacuum must be separated by preventing barriers to fire as following:
 1-7/3/4/1          Must be divided into distance that each one doesn’t exceed 30m between the barriers, or distances that don’t exceed 150m2 between the roof and the floor, and 300m2 between the ceiling and the roof.
 1-7/3/4/2  Certain situations are excluded from the previous conditions:
 1-7/3/4/2/1  The vacuum under the floor, if it has the height of 1m and incapable to  the entering of people.
 1-7/3/4/2/2  The vacuum  over the ceiling, if the ceiling was an anti-fire element, and not to be disengage or installation, and in which there isn’t visible substances in which the flame degree in expanding is less than 10 (table 1-8), ‘classification of the finishing materials for the ceilings and walls’, and chart 1-9 ‘the extend degree of the flames for certain structural materials’.
 1-7/3/4/2/3  The protected void (with a network off automatic water machines, or with an immerse system of inert gas.
 1-7/3/4/3  Must fill the cavities and gaps resulting from the installation of the buildings components, or its intervention with preventive substances to fire in the shape of paste in the following conditions:
 1-7/3/4/3/1  The Gaps that take place around the openings through which the pipes and cables pass.
 1-7/3/4/3/2  The vacuum which takes place at the meeting points of the structural elements, such as the convergence of the walls with walls or with ceilings or with the roof.
 1-7/3/4/4  The hidden emptiness must be filled and divided by using preventive barriers to fire and smoke according to the following conditions:
 1-7/3/4/4/1  If the vacuum height is more than 1m, the barriers must stand at least a half hour in resisting.
 1-7/3/4/4/2  Otherwise, the barriers may be of the gypsum boards kind, armed glass fixed on a metal structure.
 1-7/3/4/4/3  The gypsum boards and the armed glass must be tightly fixed in a way that shouldn’t be affected during fire, as well as it should be flexible in order not to be affected in the expansion and contraction of the building.

 Figure 4-1

Figure 5-1

 1-7/4  The out spread between the fire sectors: in order to continue the fire control process inside the building, certain conditions must be available that restricts the expand between the fire sectors through the holes that overlook to the outer facades or the roof in accordance to the following:
1-7/4/1        The windows that overlook at the outside facades: the distance between two adjacent windows to two fire sectors and at the same level should not be less than:

1-7/4/1/1  

 0.50m if they were on an equivalent façade.
 1-7/4/1/2  1.20m if they were on two facades that has the shape of a corner.
 1-7/4/1/3  3.00m in case the window stair is adjacent to the window of another fire sector.

Figure 6-1
Figure 7-1
Figure 8-1

 1-7/6         The spread of fire between the buildings:
 1-7/6/1

 To prevent the expand of fire between the buildings, the adequate distance should be provided to resist fire from spreading out according to the outside walls conditions as for the relation of the distance of the holes and the kind of the outside cover according to the table number 6-1 ‘the required distance between the buildings and the ground limits (property’s limit), and to take into account the data of the table 4-1 ‘the minimum resistance degree of the structural elements of the building’. And the data of the table 5-1 ‘the resistance degree of the preventing barriers to fire’.


 • The spread of fire between the buildings:

1) A building for different usages
2) The places where can fire expand quickly
3) Serious operations
4) Paint room
5) Warehouses
6) Storage of special danger
7) Precious materials and equipments

Figure 1-11
Figure 1-12

• The required distance between the buildings and the limits of the ground (estate limit)

According to the rise of the building and the area of the holes on the outside facades

     The area of the gap  The height of the building in meter    

 8

 8-24

 24 and more

     The distance in meters

 0

     No requirements

 Less than 50%

 3

 5

 10

 More than 50%

 3

7.5 

 15

 100%

 3

 7.5

 15 

Table 6-1

 1-8  Structural requirements of the elements to establish the building.
 1-8/1  The structural construction is done with all its elements such as the walls, ceilings, bridges, columns, and floors etc… from an incombustible substance and resisting to fire that suits the nature of usage, and this according to the structural resistance to fire as mentioned in the table 1-7.

 • The required resistance degree necessary for the structural building

 Elements of the structure  Residential and commercial buildings  Industrial buildings and warehouses
 Poles, bridges, and roof slabs  2 hours  4 hours
 Outer walls that are separated from its neighbor or the dangerous parts of the building  4 hours  4 hours
 Internal wall or interior partitions  2 hours  4 hours
 Separation walls to the exit way (in addition to the stair case), elevator’s well, and horizontal and vertical sewerage   2 hours  4 hours
 Note:  you can increase the resisting degree of the columns and bridges against fire according to what the civil defense notices in case the building is being used for different services, so the degree of fire resistance must be applied upon the most seriousness of usage.    

Table 7-1

 1-8/1/1  If some elements of the structure were from iron, so they must be covered with an incombustible substance and resistible to the effects of fire that goes with the required degree of the building itself.
 1-8/1/2  If the structure of the building was made of iron and based on steel columns, so the outer wall must be totally separated from the columns. And in this case, the columns and connecting bridges are used in order for the structure of the roof not to be affected because of the temperature of the fire.
 1-8/1/3  A fence must be built to surround one square forming in this way a preventive wall against fire according to what was mentioned in ‘control over the spread of fire’, and its height must be enough to avoid the fire from rising to other nearby squares according to the nature of the usage of the building.
 1-8/1/4  If the outer wall of the building was different than the separation wall of the nearby building, and the distance between them was less than 3m, it is preferable that there won’t be any holes in it if it wasn’t covered with a resisting door that goes with the required resistance degree of the wall itself.
 1-8/1/5  The building is divided into sectors preventable to fire and is separated from each other by walls or ceilings resistible to fire with the specifications of the structural elements according to what is shown in “control over the spread of fire”.
 1-8/1/6  When the building is found on the limits of the nearby squares, so the building must be surrounded with an outside wall that forms a separation wall from the buildings in the nearby squares in accordance to what is mentioned in the “control the expand of fire”.
 1-8/2  Interior finishing materials:
 1-8/2/1  The interior finishing materials are classified according to the level of the flame spread and the average of smoke development, that have classification levels according to the table 8-1 “classification of the finishing materials of the walls and ceiling”.

 • Classification of the finishing interior materials for the walls and ceilings:

 Gender  Rate of the expand of flame Average of smoke development 
 A  0-25  0-450
 B  26-75  0-450
 C  76-200  0-450
  The interior finishing materials of the walls and ceilings are classified into three categories in an descending order of preference from the safety point of view.   

 Table 8-1

 material  

 Flame expanding average

 Roof

 Fiberglass that reduces the amount of noise

 15-30

 Metal sheets for reducing noise

 10-25

        Walls  Aluminum sheets with paint dried in oven from one side.

 5-10

 Sheets of rocky silks

 0

 Cement or pottery brick

 0

 Gypsum boards covered with papers (cardboard) on both sides

 10-25

        floors    Rugs or carpets

 10-600

 Mattresses or granite tiles

 0

 Linoleum flooring

 190-300

 Flooring tiles (vinnell) that is strengthen by rocky silks

 10-50

 Note: you can have a complete list of the degrees of the expand of the flames in building materials by getting back to the reference guide that is published by laboratories of the American qualities.

(build material directory) published y underwriters laboratories, Inc. Pfingsten Road, Northbrook< IL 60062.  

 Table 1-9

 1-8/2/2  The rate of extension could be determined for both the flame and the production of smoke of the interior finishing materials for the roofs and walls according to the standard tests set in the American’s specifications: NFPA 225.
(S. method of test of surface burning characteristics of building materials).
 1-8/2/3  Some interior finishing materials of the walls and ceilings such as unfixed textiles on a strong roof isn’t suitable for testing according to the standards previously mentioned, and these substances should be tested according to the specifications of the U.S. standards: NFPA 701
(S. method of fire test for flame resistant textiles films).
 1-8/2/4  The interior finishing materials are tested according to the American standards: NFPA 253
(S. method for critical radiant flux of floor covering systems using radiant heat energy source).
 1-8/2/5  The technical basis for this test is that the expand of flame on the surface of the interior finishing materials (floors) depends in the actual fires on the amount of thermal radiation that the material is subjected to, so as long as the thermal radiation on which the measurements standards are achieved are bigger, then the tested material in the point of view of safety is better. And the least amount of the thermal radiation flood through which the measurements standards are achieved is called Minimum critical of the thermal radiant flux.
 1-8/2/6  The materials are classified descending according to what is more better to protect from fire in table 9-1 “Minimum critical of the thermal radiant flux”.

• Minimum critical of radiant thermal flood:

 gender

 Minimum critical of the thermal radiant flux.

 1

 0.45 watt/0.45 cm        watt/4522cm

 2

 0.22 watt/cm2

 Table 10-1

 1-8/3  Fire resisting doors
 1-8/3/1  All the holes that are found in the separation protective wall against fire must be equipped with a closing mean resistible to fire such as windows and doors etc… and its resisting degree to fire must be similar to the required average of the wall itself.
 1-8/3/2  The frame of the door must have the same resistible degree to fire as the door itself.
 1-8/3/3  The frame is made from incombustible substances if the resisting degree of the door is four hours or more or if was the aim of using it is to separate sections that are attached to others with high fire seriousness.
 1-8/3/4  If the resisting degree was one hour or less and the usage was in a normal place that has no fire danger, so there will be no problem if the door was made of combustible substances (wood) under the following conditions:
 1-8/3/4/1  To be covered with an incombustible substance or to be painted with a paint that slows down fire.
 1-8/3/4/2  To be made from hard wood (zein wood), without the existing of any hole or emptiness, under a condition it must give the same required resisting degree.
 1-8/3/5  The installed plates of glass on the openings of the windows and doors from a kind resistible to fire in the required degree.
 1-8/3/6  Supply the resisting door to fire with an automatic closing, but if it was a necessary to keep the door opened so it must be supplied with a mean to close it automatically if there was fire through heat isolation or an alarm system.
 1-8/3/7  A simple way for manual closing must be provided in addition to the automatic closing.
 1-8/3/8  In case the local standards aren’t available, we can instead count on the international standards.
 1-8/3/9  The substances that lowers fire must be approved by the civil defense.
 1-8/3/10  When the conditions allow that the used substances in covering have a less ability in resisting the expanding of flame (table 8-1) “classifying the interior finishing materials of the walls and ceilings (table number 9-1) “the degree of the extension of flame of certain substances” it must be according to the following standards:
 1-8/3/10/1  Selection of high combustion:1 :20
 1-8/3/10/2  Selection of easy combustion: materials that are uneasy to burn.
 1-8/3/10/3  Choosing the intensity of smoke: should not exceed (450), and doesn’t produce poisonous gas.
 1-8/3/11  If the used materials for covering were from wood, or substances that have the ability to resist the extension of flames less than (0), so it must be fixed directly on the wall that doesn’t have a thickness more than (2cm) and width (5cm) and to fill the void with incombustible substances.
 1-8/3/12  In case the covering materials were placed on a structure far from the wall or ceiling, as in pending ceilings, so the installed roof sheets must be in the required degree and fixed on a structure of incombustible materials, and the back space must be divided as it what was mentioned in the paragraph 1-7/3/3 it must be divided by barriers preventing the extension of fire.
 1-8/4  Iron construction
 1-8/4/1  When the elements of building are from iron, it must be dealt with to give the required resisting degree to protect them from collapsing because of the fire heat.
 1-8/4/2  The procedure of protecting the iron structural elements according to its application into several ways:
 1-8/4/2/1  Dip the iron item through pouring it, or the building using cement bricks or pottery, and the protection operation must be according to the following:
 1-8/4/2/1  Dipping: dip the columns through pouring it, or building of the cement bricks or pottery on a basement of wire network.
 1-8/4/1/1  The thickness of covering data must be adopted by the civil defense after taking into consideration the required degree of resistance.

Figure 14-1

 1-8/4/2/2 Covering: covering the iron element by approved boards and resistible to fire in the shape of a box, and the protecting process in covering according to the following conditions: 
 1-8/4/2/2/1  Ni services must pass through the emptiness behind the protective boards of the iron elements.
 1-8/4/2/2/2  When the protective boards have a width of more than (60cm), the installation must be on a strong iron boards to protect it from being broken.

Figure 15-1

 1-8/4/2/3 Covering: covering the iron element with a layer of a material that is adopted to resist fire in the form of a paste that applied in a spray way, and the protection operation in the covering way must be according to the following: 
 1-8/4/2/3/1  The operation safety in the covering way according to the company condition and approved by the civil defense, but taking into account the thickness, the way and conditions of applying, proportion of confusion, weather forecast and its relation with applying and storing, and the expiry date.
 1-8/4/2/3/2  The iron element must be prepared concerning the cleaning and painting the basics and so on.
 1-8/4/2/3/3  The operation of protecting the structural elements due to the three mentioned ways, and according to the known engineering standards, and specifications of the specialized agencies that is approved by the civil defense.

 1-8/5

 Plastic building materials:

 1-8/5

For the purpose to lessen the seriousness of fire resulting from the use of plastic materials, which many used to establish or finish the buildings, these materials must be subject to certain restrictions that reduce the danger, according to the following conditions, plastic materials are divided to the following types: 

 1-8/5/1

 Type I /plastic materials: the division in terms of restructuring is two main types:

 1-8/5/1/1

 Solid sheets: such as polyStarin, polyethylene foam, and Alaisosaniit, are used in isolation and the formation of partitions, the cover the surface and so on.

 1-8/5/1/2

 Flexible sheets: sponge such as polyethylene, which are used in the decoration work and so on.

 1-8/5/1/2/1

 a slowing supply of fire should be added to the mix of the manufacture of plastic materials (foam) for the use in the buildings to become the properties of plastic foam as follows:

 1-8/5/1/2/1/1

 Not easy to combust.

 1-8/5/1/2/1/2

 The degree of flame extension is not more than (10)) see Table 1-8 "classification of the interior finishing materials for the walls and ceilings," Table 1-9 "degree of extension of the flame for some construction materials".

 1-8/5/1/2/1/3

 Smoke density should not be more than (450)) (see Table 1-8) "classification of the interior finishing materials for walls and ceilings," Table 1-9 "degree of extension of the flame for some construction materials".

 1-8/5/1/2/1/4

 Toxic smoke no more than ordinary wood.

 1-8/5/2

 Type II / solid plastic materials: used in the form of colored or transparent panels, or used as a cover of the lighting holes, or the cover of domes and others.

 1-8/5/3

 Plastic materials as a thermal insulator in buildings:

 1-8/5/3/1

 Allows the use of plastic materials according to the following conditions:

 1-8/5/3/1/1

 Filling up the thick (10 cm) between two floors of the brick that each one have the thickness of at least (5 cm) under condition to fill the vacuum.

 1-8/5/3/1/2

 the thickness of its cover is not less than (5 cm). In the case it is used as a part of the structural elements components, such as internal partitions or the cover of the surface.

 1-8/5/3/2

 it is Allowed to be used as a filling substance in the doors that are not anti-fire, under a condition that the thickness of the fillers don’t exceed (5 cm) and the rate of extension of the flame doesn’t surpass (10) see Table 1-8 "classification of the interior finishing materials for walls and ceilings, and " Table 1-9 "the Extension degree of the flame for some construction materials "and wrapped.

 1-8/5/3/3

 it is Allowed to use the plastic materials inside buildings, either for isolating or as a filler of the internal partitions in accordance with the following conditions:

 1-8/5/3/3/1

 the floor area should Not go beyond (200 meter square) or the area of the partitions themselves should not surpass (100 meter square). The floor should be divided into fire sectors, in which sector area must not go over (200 meter square) of floor’s area is more than that.

 1-8/5/3/3/2

 the thickness of the plastic materials used for thermal isolator must not be more than (5 cm).

 

 1-9  General requirements for the construction of various sections: (basement, mezzanine, enlightening, like).
 1-9/1  basement: take into account the conditions on the basement should be provided for fire protection and safety of individuals according to the nature of use, and by taking into account the following conditions:
 1-9/1/1  Required to ensure ventilation and the adequate natural or artificial lighting for the basement.
 1-9/1/2  Required to take all necessary precautions to prevent the infiltration of water to the basement, and to provide the basement’s floor with the necessary means to discharge water in the event of a ground-level basement below the level of water sources nearby.
 1-9/1/3  Apply the Conditions specified for (the stairs) and exits of the basements According to provisions in the chapter of the ways to escape and emergency exits, in a way that the number of the exits of one basement should be at least two exits if its area increased more than of 150 meter square, and the distance from the farthest point in the basement from the exit door should not be more than 15 meters, under a condition that one of the exits must lead directly to the outside.
 1-9/1/4  If any director tunnel leading to the entrance of the main stairs of the building, there must be taken all the necessary precautions in the ground floor in a way that the stirs must lead directly from the basement to the outside without having to continue accessing to the upper floors.
 1-9/1/5  Provide the natural ventilation adequate for the releasing of the smoke from the basement through the use of windows on the outer wall of the building, and it is covered with a thick barrier net if they are opened, or whether the gunman Glass closed depending on the nature of use.

If there is no sufficient natural ventilation windows provided try to work on providing adequate means for the disposal of smoke and other gases from the basement in case of fire, according to the following:
 
Create openings at the top of the outer wall of the crypt (or in its ceiling)that overlooks on the sidewalk or open areas from the ground floor such as the passages and others, in the measurement of(90 × 90 cm) covered  with glass- brick or any other materials that can allow the civil defense men to open or break it easily when needed in cases Emergency. 
to find a system such as the chimneys for the disposal of smoke from the basement in case of fire, and this is done through the development of the entrances to the open air near the basement and the withdrawn tube in the roof that reach the vents of the top floor and are covered as stated in the preceding paragraph. 
Civil Defense have the right of acceptance and adoption of any other suitable means to the dumping of smoke that are proposed by the design engineer with a requirement to fulfill the purpose. 
Must provide the following requirements in the ventilation openings in the basements: 
To be in clear and affordable place for the access of the civil defense officials. 
To be distinguished with sign plates with reference to the purpose of its existence. 
Be covered with material that could allow the civil defense men to open or break it easily when needed. 
Skylights: take into account the providing of the protective conditions related to the defending against fire and safety of individuals according to the nature of use, taking into account the following orders: 
the windows that overlook over the enlightening must be of the resistant type to fire, especially if it was in a location where there is the seriousness of the fire such as the kitchens and bathrooms, etc., or the application of the conditions contained in the "control over the spread of fire." 
 
If the enlightening was used as an outlet for the passage of the flue, then all the overlooking vents upon it should be covered with fire-resistant doors with an automatic closure under a condition that this must be approved by the civil defense.

The upper hole must be obvious and surrounded with a wall that is at least 1.5 meters in height from the roof level in order to form a protective barrier from falling. 
Enlightening may not be used as an exit in emergency cases only with the consent of the Civil Defense. 
It must not be used for the purpose of enlightening trash collection or to use it as a room or store for the first floor or any use other than what was specified for it.

 1-9/3 Mezzanine: mezzanine shall provide conditions concerning the fire protection and the safety of individuals according to the nature of use, taking into account the following conditions: 
 1-9/3/1  The mezzanine that is not connected with the ground floor consider the commercial shop as a normal separate floor in the multi-floor buildings.
 1-9/3/2  The area of the Must not exceed 60% of the area of the ground floor.
 1-9/3/3  The height of the ground floor in addition to increase of the must be less than 5.5 meters.
 1-9/3/4  That the cycle mezzanine at (1m) in height, and it must be of transparent substance that does not prevent vision such as glass or iron.
 1-9/3/5  To be able to reach the floors by an open stairs by that must have a width at least 1.2 meters.
 1-9/3/6  Should not occupy a 100% area of the commercial shop only after obtaining the approval of the Civil Defense under a condition:
 1-9/3/6/1  Have an open interface on the street.
 1-9/3/6/2  And to have sufficient exits to be one of the exits leading outside.
 1-9/3/6/3  Not to be a threat to the safety of persons.

  figure 17-1