رقم الدفاع المدنى 998

Fire fighting systems and warning systems


• General requirements for fire control systems and alarm systems

Index

 page  Symbol  Second section: general requirements for fire control system and alarm system
 38  2-1  Goal
   2-2  Applying fields
   2-3  Design requirements
   2-4  License needs
   2-5  Maintenance requirements
   2-6  Training necessities
   2-7 Classifying the systems and fire equipments
   2-7/1  Manual fire equipments
   2-7/1/1  Manual fire extinguishers
   2-7/1/1/1  Kinds of extinguishers
   2-7/1/1/1/1  Water extinguishers
   2-7/1/1/1/2  Foam extinguishers
   2-7/1/1/1/3 Gas extinguishers (carbon dioxide CO2)
   2-7/1/1/1/4  Dry powder extinguishers
   2-7/1/1/1/5  Vaporized fluids extinguishers
   2-7/1/3  Kinds of fire and adequate fire extinguishers
   2-7/1/3/1  Fire kind (a)
   2-7/1/3/2  Fire kind (b)
   2-7/1/3/3  Fire kind (c)
   2-7/1/3/4  Fire kind (d)
   2-7/1/4  General Aspects in the distribution of manual fire extinguishers
   2-7/1/5  Distribution of manual fire extinguishers
   2-7/2  Fixed fire extinguisher equipments
   2-7/2/1  Rubber hoses with reels
   2-7/2/2  Vertical dry pipes
   2-7/2/3  Vertical wet pipes
   2-7/2/4  Foam releasing network
   2-7/2/5  Outer water intakes for fire

• General requirements for control systems and fire alarm systems

related to the Index

 page  Symbol Second section: general requirements for fire control system and alarm system
   2-7/3  automatic fixed Systems and fire-fighting equipment
   2-7/3/1  Automatic water sprinkler network
   2-7/3/2  Alternative system
   2-7/3/3  Carbon dioxide system
   2-7/3/4  Chemical dry powder system
   2-7/3/5  Foam and water system
   2-7/3/6  Fixed automatic units (Modeler extinguisher)
   2-8  Fire alarm system
   2-8/1  Manual alarm system
   2-8/2  Automatic alarm system

 • General requirements for control systems and fire alarm systems

 Page  Table No.  Table name
   2-1  The selection and the way of distributing fire extinguishers type (a)
   2-2  The selection and the way of distributing fire extinguishers type (b)
   2-3  The selection and the way of distributing fire extinguishers type (c)

• General requirements for control systems and fire alarm systems

 2-1  Objective: processing buildings and facilities with warning systems and struggling in order to protect the buildings and its users from fire danger, and this is through providing an early alarm (at give the signal at the beginning of the fire) to help evacuating the building, and primarily fighting the fire by trained people or through automatic equipments, then calling the civil defense team to interfere in an actual way of fighting and rescue if needed
 2-2  Application areas: all of the facilities and buildings and shops under license civil defense must be equipped with fire-fighting equipment and warning, appropriate prevention in accordance with these conditions.
 2-3  Design requirements: the fire fighting equipments and warnings must be designed and implemented according to the terms of the second part (the engineering specifications for alarm systems, fire control).
 2-4  Licensing requirements: Civil Defense should be applied to all countries.
 2-5  Maintenance requirements: The fire-fighting systems and warning should be provided with a regular maintenance service by a specialist or a certified contractor in accordance with the terms of Part II.
 2-6  Training requirements: Occupants of the building must be trained in the operation and use of fire-fighting systems, warning and inspection.
 2-7 Classification fire-fighting equipment and systems:
Fire-fighting equipment and alarm systems are divided into the following main types:
a) Manual, automatic, and fixed fire fighting equipments and systems.
b) Manual and automatic alarm systems.
 2-7/1 Manual fire-fighting equipment: are the manual mobile equipments ‘first aid’ and that is used to fight fire at its early stages through normal people that are found in the building, some of these equipments are:
a)Manual fire extinguishers in their different kinds.
b)Manual water pumpers.
c)Sand and water containers.
d)Special blankets resistant to fire.

 2-7/1/1  Manual fire extinguishers:
 2-7/1/1/1  Manual fire extinguisher is a manual light mean to put off fire in its early stages and one of the fire equipment for first aid.
 2-7/1/1/2  Hand extinguishers are requested in any building subject to the approval of civil defense under the terms of fire protection in buildings or in any site that carries out an activity that requires the approval of the Civil Defense.
 2-7/1/1/3  Hand extinguishers must be type approved according official license from the Civil Defense.
 2-7/1/1/4  The owner of the building or site must maintain the hand extinguishers in a situation that sound suitable for use when needed and this is through doing what is necessary concerning testing, periodic inspecting, and maintenance by the authorized dealer or by a specialized technical body adopted by civil defense.
 2-7/1/1/5  Inspection work and periodic testing depend on the instructions of the company and civil defense.

 

 2-7/1/2  Types of extinguishers: manual extinguishers are divided to the types based on the type of fire.
 2-7/1/2/1  Water extinguishers: is the extinguisher that give water as a substance to end fire, and is sectioned into two types:
 2-7/1/2/1/1  Extinguishers water pressure of carbon dioxide: a cylinder filled with normal water pressure composite cylinder inside a small (cartridge) compressed with carbon dioxide gas. In case you want to start it pinch the head of the cartridge to release the compressed gas in which in its turn pushes the water strongly through the hose.
 2-7/1/2/1/2  Water Extinguishers stored according to the pressure of air or nitrogen: two-thirds of the cylinder is filled with water and the remaining with normal air or compressed nitrogen gas and when operating open the valve and water goes strongly due to the jailed pressure.
 2-7/1/2/2  Foam extinguishers: They provide a liquid foam as a substance to extinguish the fire. And it has two types:
 2-7/1/2/2/1  Chemical foam extinguishers: the foam is produced by the chemical interaction and the foam is pushed by the pressure resulting from the interaction.
 2-7/1/2/2/2  Mechanical foam extinguishers: the kind that produces foam mechanically by means of blending materials foam, water, and air and it is pushed by carbon dioxide that is compressed in discs (cartridge).
 2-7/1/2/3  Carbon dioxide extinguishers: The extinguisher that gives carbon dioxide as an extinguisher, and it is one type with different sizes only. The gas is stored under pressure in the form of liquid, and is released when operating and during the opening of the controlling in the disc.
 2-7/1/2/4  Dry powder extinguishers: a quench that gives the dry chemical powder as an extinguisher substance. It has two types according to the way of operating.
 2-7/1/2/4/1  Extinguishers working under gas pressure, a kind that pushes the powder by the pressure of carbon dioxide saved underweight in the small cylinder "cartridge."
 2-7/1/2/4/2  Pressure extinguishers it is a type that pushes the powder due to the pressure of the nitrogen gas that is saved in the cylinder with the powder. The chemicals structures are of several types:
a) A powder that has in its main structure sodium bicarbonate.
b) powder that has in its main structure of potassium bicarbonate.
c) Powder of multi process.
d) Certain powders specified in dealing with a certain kind of metal fire. 
  It is used only in special cases.
 2-7/1/2/5  Vaporized fluid extinguisher: (BCFS), it is an extinguisher that gives different kinds of chemical liquids as a substance to extinguish fire. And these changes due to the touches with the heat of the fire into thick heavy vaporizes that works on stopping the chemical interaction of the fire. This kind of extinguishers is going to be internationally forbidden because of its effect on the environment.

 2-7/1/3  The types of fire and the appropriate extinguishers that struggle it:
Fires are divided into four main parts as shown below as well as the mentioning of the appropriate manual extinguisher for each type. (for easy revision see the tables 2-1 up till 2-3).
 2-7/1/3/1  The type of fire (a) is about regular carbonic solids such as paper, wood, cloth, and other. And these types have an adequate water extinguishers because water has the cooling specification, in addition it can leak inside the pore of the materials.
 2-7/1/3/2  Fire type (b), is about the  flammable liquid:
 2-7/1/3/2/1  
 2-7/1/3/2/2  Dry powder extinguishers: it is effective and expeditious in the clearance of flames, and it is used when fire is in substances poured on the ground or moving or when the flame requires a high speed in fighting because of having the fear that it might expand, but this type has no cooling effect, which gives the feeling of fear to the return of the ignition if the temperature of the liquid high, and the powder is not connected to the power supply.
 2-7/1/3/2/3  Carbon dioxide Extinguishers: like chemical powder extinguishers with a difference that carbon dioxide does not have an adverse impact on assets such as certain types of foam and powder extinguishers and carbon dioxide is non-conductive power outages.
 2-7/1/3/2/4  Extinguisher fluid vaporized: Because of small packs, it is used in the small areas of fire or in engines that operate on liquid fuel, it is a material that is not connected to the power supply.
 2-7/1/3/3  The type of fire (c), a fire occurring in the electrical equipment. And the extinguishers that are required to be used are carbon dioxide and dry powder or vaporized liquids. And it is forbidden in such cases the use of water or foam because they are connected to the electrical power.
2-7/1/3/4 Fire type (d) is a fire occurring in minerals such as magnesium, titanium, sodium, potassium and other. And special type of dry powder is used in these cases, and there are some minerals that have a special kind of powder. And each must consult the Director General of Civil Defense in this regard and follow the set up instructions on the extinguishers installed by the manufacturer. Note that there was a development of a kind of dry powder to be used to fight mineral fires so that the metal becomes as paste while touching the burning surface and the brand name for this is (Purple K).

 

 2-7/1/4  General Aspects in the distribution of manual fire extinguishers:

   In addition to the items stated in the previous terms and the attached table, it must be taken into consideration in choosing the appropriate type of manual extinguishers the following respects:

 2-7/1/4/1  Quench per site operates the same way so that there is no ambiguity or confusion when using these extinguishers in case of fire.
 2-7/1/4/2  In locations where there are higher places or in which there is a requirement control in a corner of defamation, hoses extinguisher is used.
 2-7/1/4/3  Choose the type that fits with the site according to the throwing distance or the kind of throwing.
 2-7/1/4/4  Choose the kind of lightweight reasonable and appropriate to the persons that are going to use them.
 2-7/1/4/5  It is always better to select the best easy species to use and that have its maintenance away from complexity.
 2-7/1/4/6  Notice the weather forecast of the place concerning heat, humidity, cold, or erosion and their impact on extinguishers and their contents.
 2-7/1/4/7  The required number of extinguishers is specified in one water extinguisher with the capacity of gallons or what is  equivalent to it in each (200 m 2), but not less than two extinguishers for each floor for the regular fires F (a).
 2-7/1/4/8  The number of extinguishers required for the kind of fires (b) inflamed liquids as in Table (2-2).

 2-7/1/5  Distribution of manual extinguisher of fire:
 2-7/1/5/1  In general, unless the text isn’t set, the extinguishers are distributed at appropriate locations away from each other not more than (20) meters and the number set for each 200 meter square area is one fire extinguisher.
 2-7/1/5/2  Or extinguishers for each floor concerning the water extinguishers.
 2-7/1/5/3  The burning fluid extinguisher is defined according to the burning liquid surface area. And it is requested to be organized as shown in Schedule No. (2-2).
 2-7/1/5/4  Otherwise extinguishers are distributed in the appropriate places recommended by the civil defense and generally take into account the following conditions:
 2-7/1/5/5  Extinguishers must be kept in a closet or in a cavity in the wall with a door in order to conserve it from the weather aspects or from missing up.
 2-7/1/5/6  It might be suspended on the in some cases approved by the Civil Defense, where there is no fear from the mentioned warnings.
 2-7/1/5/7  The extinguishers that are suspended on the wall must be installed at a height of one meter from the extinguisher’s base to the surface of the ground.
 2-7/1/5/8  Necessary plates must be installed to indicate the location of extinguishers with the necessary instructions on how to use or warnings that must be alert to it.
 2-7/1/5/9  Extinguishers sites are selected in an appropriate accessible place.
 2-7/1/5/9/1  Be closest to the exits or the staircase.
 2-7/1/5/9/2  Each extinguisher must be away from the other not more than 20m.
 2-7/1/5/9/3  It should rise from the surface of the ground at one meter.

 • Agenda selection and distribution of fire extinguishers type (a)

 Type of fire  Adequate extinguishers  notes  Kind of extinguisher  Extinguisher capacity  Extinguisher’s throwing distance Total Approximate weight 

   Number of extinguishers required for each

               20m In one floor 
 Fires of type (a), are solid substances such as wood, paper, and cloth.  Water: cooling is the necessary aspect that is depended upon on in normal solid fires such as wood, paper, cloth etc…
And water for example has the cooling aspect more than other extinguisher materials, for this it is preferred to be used in normal solid fires because such fires reignite if it wasn’t cooled enough. in addition n to this, water leaks quickly into the depth of fire
 Water is considered to be a good conductor to electricity, so it shouldn’t be used in electrical fires.  Water and compressed gas  9 liters, 2 gallons  10 meter, 30 foot  10-18Kg, 33-40 lbs  1  2
       Stored water under pressure        1  2
  

Table 2-1

• Agenda selection and distribution of fire extinguishers type (b)

 

 Type of fire  Adequate extinguishers  notes  Kind of extinguisher  Extinguisher capacity Extinguisher’s throwing distance  Total Approximate weight  Number of extinguishers required for each 
 Fires of type (b): liquids that are ready to burn such as fuel and chemical materials.  (1) Foam: fire is being extinguished by the use of foam as a cover over the surface of the burning liquid, and this cover is left for a certain period in order to cool the liquid and preventing it from reinitiating. For this the foam extinguisher is adequate for fighting fire liquids that is being burning for a period of time or that become hot during to the interactions that it over goes such as heaters and irrigation reservoirs, oil heaters and boilers linseed varnish.  It is impossible to create a cover out of foam for the hot liquid especially if this liquid is on a horizontal surface. Liquids that moves over a vertical surface might over goes larger distances than the capacity of the extinguisher. There are several types of liquids such as alcohol that have the capacity of breaking the cover and makes it ineffective.
In addition to this, the foam is a good conductor to electricity and it shouldn’t be used in fires produced by electricity.
 Automatic foam  9 liters – 2 gallons  8 meters, 23 foot  15-18 Kg, 33-40  2/1-2 meter square

Table 2-2

 Type of fire  Adequate extinguisher  notes  Kind of extinguisher  Capacity of the extinguisher  Approximate weight  The distance of throwing of the extinguisher Coverage area of one extinguisher 
 Related to fire type (b), flammable liquids such as fuel or chemical materials. Flammable liquids such as fuel or chemical materials.  (2) Dry powder:
Dry powder is considered to the best used extinguishers to struggle flammable liquids. This powder extinguishes the ignite flames that is spreading quickly over the surface. And it is preferred to use this kind instead of the foam extinguisher in the cases where fire may reach nearby substances before it is able to form a cover foam over it, and the effect of other extinguishers that are similar in size in case of huge fires, in addition that the dry powder isn’t an electrical  conductor and it can be used to fight fires resulting from electricity.
 The cooling aspects that this type has are limited and it doesn’t prevent the restarting of the ignition that might take place after the throwing is stopped. And its effectiveness is weaker than that of the foam in cases of flammable liquids where the liquids are hotter in the container due to its being on fire for a certain period of time.  Dry extinguishers with its several types  2Kg, 4-5 lbs,
3Kg, 7 lbs
9Kg,20 lbs
 4kg,10 lbs-
9kg, 18 lbs
18kg,20 lbs
 3meters, 10 foot, 5 meters, 15 foot, 7 meters, 20 foot  1 meter square
10 foot square.
1 and a half meter square.
15 foot square.
4 meter square.
40 foot square.

Continued Table 2-2
• The agenda selection and distribution of fire extinguishers type (b)

 Type of fire  Adequate extinguisher  notes  Kind of extinguisher  Capacity of the extinguisher Approximate weight   The distance of throwing of the extinguisher Coverage area of one extinguisher 
Continuous of fire type (b).
Flammable liquids such as fuel and chemical substances.
(3) Carbon dioxide: the carbon dioxide works on extinguishing the flames from the surface of the liquid in a quicker time than that of the foam, and it s considered to be better in extinguishing fires that have the ability of spreading to the nearby before forming a foam cover for the flamed liquid. Carbon dioxide extinguishers could be used to turn off small fires that contain spreading liquids on a horizontal surface. And here are some seriousness that could be ended by using this type such as kitchen fires and sensitive laboratories equipments. The cooling properties that carbon dioxide have are limited and doesn’t prevent the ignition of the fire again that might take place when the pump is over. Its effectiveness is less than that of the foam in liquid flammable cases where the liquid is being heated to a high level due to its being on fire for a certain period of time. Carbon dioxide extinguishers 1kg, 2.5 lbs, 3kg, 7 lbs, 4kg, 10lbs 6kg, 13 lbs, 16kg, 23lbs, 19-21kg, 38-42 lbs 1.5 meter, 4 foot, 3 meters, 7 foot. 2 and a half meter square, 5 foot square, 1 meter square, 10 foot square.

 

Continued Table 2-2

• The agenda selection and distribution of fire extinguishers type (b)

 Type of fire  Adequate extinguisher  notes  Kind of extinguisher  Capacity of the extinguisher Approximate weight   The distance of throwing of the extinguisher  Coverage area of one extinguisher
 Continuous of fire type (b).
Flammable liquids such as fuel and chemical substances.
 Evaporating liquids that tends towards extinguishing the flames in a quick way, and it can be also adequate for small fires for these extinguishers are usually small. And it is used in particular to extinguish fires of the engines that work on fuel and oil, in addition to this it is not an electricity conductor.  It should not be used or stored in closed areas or in any place that allow the inhaling of gases when it is subjected to heat.
methyl bromide is highly toxic and it is  advised not to use it within the contents of the extinguisher.
 Evaporative liquids (c.b.m.b.c.f).  ½ liter, 1/8 gallons  2 kg, 6 lbs  7 meter, 20 foot  1/3 meter square

Continued Table 2-2

• Agenda selection and distribution of fire extinguishers type (c, d)

 Kind of fire  Adequate extinguisher  Notes
 Fires of type (c)
Electrical or electronic machines
 Carbon dioxide, Dry powder, Evaporated liquids  Carbon dioxide, Dry powder, and Evaporated liquids:
These three substances are considered to be the best in electrical fire fighting, where water and foam extinguishers shouldn’t be used to prevent the fear of being subjected to an electrical shock (water and foam are electrical conductors), only in cases in which electrical power is disconnected. Water is the best that can be used in fire fighting, except in fires that contain oil or liquid through which certain extinguishers must be used. As well as the carbon dioxide extinguishers, they are considered the adequate electrical fires extinguisher because of its light weight.
 Fire of type (d)
Flammable minerals or other fuel substances
 Dry Chemical  powder  Dry Chemical powder:
There is a one special dry powder for each kind of flammable minerals, for this you must be fixed to the instructions written on the extinguisher and that has been set by the manufacturer, and at the same time to consult the civil defense during choosing the adequate extinguisher of mineral fires.
An important note: there is a high risk of danger upon health if the choosing of the mineral fire extinguisher wasn’t in the right way.

Table 2-3

 2-7/2  Fixed fire-fighting equipment:   is a fixed network of extensions including the use of fire-fighting in the first stages by ordinary people living in the building, and others which are used teams such as civil defense officers. And it is Divided in terms of work to the following:
 2-7/2/1  rubber hoses with pulley-block:
rubber hoses with pulley-block is a simple mean to combat the fire as a first aid only by users of the building themselves, without the need for earlier training, a rubber hose diameter 25 mm (1 inch) that is wrapped on a reel set in the metal box fixed on the wall or inside it and directly connected to the water network and ready for use once the hose is withdrawn.
 2-7/2/1/1  The rubber hose with a pulley-block consists of:
a. The net
b. Pulley-block
c. The hose and its extensions
d. Water source
 2-7/2/2  Horizontal dry pipes:
Is a network of fixed extensions, empty from water and it has a pushing point for pumping the water from outside the building, and the water openings that are distributed in the necessary places in the building, and it is used to help the civil defense men in pumping the water to use it in higher floors.
 2-7/2/2/1  The horizontal dry pipes in the building consist of:
a) The horizontal pipe that feeds the openings.
b) The pushing point at the bottom of the net to be pumped by the civil defense men. (Inlet)
c) The fire openings (exits) in the floors (Out Let).
 2-7/2/2/2  The dry hoses are requested in the buildings and other conditions such as:
a) Buildings that consist of five floors or more including the ground floor, or with the height of 18meters and more.
b) Buildings that consists of more than two floors in case the area of one floor was more than 1000 m2.
c) Buildings that are considered to be dangerous to lives or contents according to the evaluation of the civil defense.
 2-7/2/3  Horizontal wet tubes:
Is a stabled network with a water source that continuously feed the openings of the fire (exits) and which are distributed in the necessary places of the building and used by the civil defense or trained ones to struggle the fire in the premises.
 2-7/2/3/1  The horizontal network wet tubes consist of:
The vertical tube that feed the openings.
Water source
Pumpers
Hoses and its extensions
Pushing opening
 2-7/5/3/1  Vertical Water source that is found above the ground for firefighting:
It is a vertical fixed tube that is connected to the bottom of the feeding net until it ends at the top with an opening or more, and with a cover for each source that is tied to a chain.
The diameter of the vertical tube depends on the number of the sources and its usage, in addition to the amount of the out coming water, nevertheless, it is not less than 4inch, and any source should not be less than 2.5inch.
Beside each source a valve is set in an inspecting hole according to the conditions of the civil defense.
 2-7/2/5/3/2  Underground Water intakes for firefighting:
Is a tube that contains the valve and ends in the opening of the source, with a cover tied with a chain. The sources of firefighting are stored in an inspecting hole in accordance to the terms of the civil defense.

 2-7/3  Firefighting fixed and automatic systems and equipments:
  it is a network of fixed extensions with openings distributed in the requested places that are needed to be protected. It is fed through a continuous source of the needed fire material, and it works automatically due to the sensing of heat resulting from fire, or because of sensing the smoke.
 2-7/3/1  Automatic water Spray system of fire extinguishers:
Overhead network of pipes spread in the places to be protected, it is fed with water from an adequate source in terms of quantity and pressure for water rushing through the closed sprinklers (wet  sprinklers),  that opens automatically when affected by the heat. Or water rushing through the opened heads that fill the entire place with water, and opens automatically by a secondary alarm.
 2-7/3/1/1  The network of automatic water sprinklers must be designed implemented and maintained  in accordance with the specifications and conditions (Part II) or the Civil Defense guidance.
 2-7/3/1/2  Take into account in the design of the type of water sprinklers the serious fire in the contents as a high, medium or small risk, in accordance with the specifications and conditions (Part II) or guidance of Civil Defense.
 2-7/3/1/3  Types of automatic water sprinklers of fire extinguishers:
1 – humid net.
2 - dry network.
3 – wet nets of a previous operating.
4 - Network of total immersion.
5 – installed network.
 2-7/3/1/3/1  Water sprinklers with a wet net:
Is a network of pressurized water rushing through the sprinkler closed heads that is opened when affected by temperature.
 2-7/3/1/3/2  Water sprinklers with a dry net:
Is a network  that has similar extensions as the humid network but with compressed air. And water is suspended at the main valve by air pressure, the valve opens automatically when the air leaks from the heads that open when affected by  fire allowing the water to rush through it.
 2-7/2/3/2  Vertical humid pipes are requested in buildings as well as in the following cases:
Buildings that are higher than 28 meters, calculated from the ground of the ground floor up till the ground floor of the latter.
Buildings where there are serious fire to life and property estimated by the Civil Defense.
 2-7/2/3/3  The use of the network should be limited and used only to struggle fire.
 2-7/2/3/4  The keys of the main network valve are reserved in special closed places in addition to a copy of a key kept in a closed box of glass fixed on the door of the building and in order to prevent folic of the people or irresponsible ones.
2-7/2/4 A network of fixed pipes used to push the combination of water and foam to deliver it to the inaccessible places, which are generally used for the storage, or the use of liquid fuel.  The combination of water and foam flow in the form of bubbles that works as an isolating curtain to keep the burning roof away from the outside air, and the water does the cooling process.
2-7/2/5 External water intakes for firefighting (Fire Hydrants):
It is a network of underground extensions with a continuous water source feeding the water intakes and it is used for it provides the necessary water to help the firefighters struggle fire from the outside.
2-7/2/5/1 The outside water intakes requires in the following cases:
1 – In all public streets in cities.
2 - Outside buildings equipped with a wet vertical pipe network to complement it.
3 - on the streets and squares of large facilities with high risk such as airports, ports, large factories, collective buildings and others.
2-7/2/5/2 The outside water intakes of the waters of fire extinguishers consist of the following:
1 - a network of pipelines that feed the intakes (pits).
2 - Sources of water.
3 – water intakes (pits).
2-7/2/5/3 The outside intakes of fire-fighting water are divided into two parts:
Water intakes for firefighting above the ground.
Underground water intakes for fires.
2-7/2/5/3/1 Vertical water intakes for firefighting above the ground:
It is a vertical column that is connected to the depth of the feeding network and ends at the top with an opening or more with a cover for each that is tied to a chain.
The diameter of the vertical tube depends on the number of nozzles and their uses and the amount of water that rushes out. And it is not less than 4 inches, while each nozzle must not be less than 2.5 inches.
3 – a valve is set next to each nozzle within an inspecting hole according to the specifications and conditions of civil defense.
2-7/2/5/3/2 Underground water intakes for fire:
It is a tube that contains a valve and ends with a nozzle of water intake, with a cover tied to a chain, according to the terms of the civil defense. The water intakes are stored in an inspection hole according to the conditions of the civil defense.

 2-7/3  Automatic and fixed systems and equipments for firefighting:  
Is a network of fixed extensions with aperture distributed in the required places that are needed to be protected and it is fed with a continuous source for the necessary fire material. It works automatically due to the sensing of heat that results from fire, or due to the sensing of fire.
 2-7/3/1  Automatic water sprinklers system for firefighting:
Overhead network of pipes spread in higher places to be protected. It is fed from the water source in terms of quantity and pressure, so water can rush through the closed sprayers (wet sprinklers), that opens automatically due to the effect of heat. Or water rushes through the open heads and cover the entire place which  opens automatically by a warning help.
 2-7/3/1/1  The automatic network water sprinkler must be designed, implemented and maintained in accordance with the specifications and conditions (Part II) or the guidance of the Civil Defense.
 2-7/3/1/2  Taken into account in the design of the type of water sprinklers the seriousness of fire as a high, medium, or small risk, in accordance with the specifications and conditions (Part II) or evidence of Civil Defense
 2-7/3/1/3  Types of automatic water sprinklers for fire extinguishing:
1 – Humid net.
2 - Dry network.
3 – Wet network with a previous operation.
4 – Network for total immersion.
5 – installed network
 2-7/3/1/3/1  A wet network of water sprinklers for fire:
Is a network of pressurized water to rush through the closed heads of the sprinkler that are opened when affected by temperature.
 2-7/3/1/3/2  The dry network of water sprinklers for fire extinguishing:
Is a network that have similar extensions of the humid network but with compressed air, and water is suspended at the main valve by air pressure. The valve opens automatically when the air leaks from the sprinkler’s heads that opens when it is affected by heat allowing water to rush through it.
 2-7/3/1/3  Wet network of prior operation:
Is a network with similar extensions to the wet network, where water is suspended at the valve, with a warning network assistant and is dependent upon the water valve, added the warning to help either by air or by electricity. It also works automatically when affected by fire and opens the valves allowing the water to rush in the net then through the thermal sprayers that in their turns open when affected by heat.
 2-7/3/1/4  The total immersion network:
Is a network of similar extensions to the wet network of prior operating, but the heads of the sprayers are all open, immersing the entire site during the operation of the system.
 2-7/3/1/5  Installed network:
Is a common system between the wet network of prior operation and that of the dry network.
 2-7/3/2  The helium system or its alternatives:
it is about a network of pipes distributed in the places that are needed to be protected, and it is fed by a cylinder that contains helium gas or any alternative to it (extinguisher) and it is stored under the pressure of nitrogen to rush through the nozzles to the place that needs protection when the system is on, knowing that the helium system is going to be internationally banned due to its affect on the environment, and there is going to be alternative materials to it.
 2-7/3/3  Carbon dioxide system:
it is a network of distributed pipes in the places that are in  need of protection, and it is fed by cylinders containing carbon dioxide gas (as an extinguisher) that is stored under pressure in order to rush through the nozzles that are distributed in the necessary places when the system is on “according to the terms of the civil defense’.
 2-7/3/4  Dry chemical powder system:
it is a network that is distributed to the places that need protection, and it is fed from the dry chemical powder vessels (as an extinguisher). It is pressured due to nitrogen or carbon dioxide to rush through the nozzles to the meant location. The materials that are used in extinguishing consist of sodium bicarbonate, potassium, or mono ammonium phosphate.
 2-7/3/4/1  Types of dry chemical powder: dry powder systems are divided into the following types according to the way of coverage:
1 - total immersion system: a system that covers the size of the place or the entire room.
2 - Local immersion system: a system which covers a specific space in the building or location.
 2-7/3/4/2  Operation of the dry chemical powder is as follows:
1 - Auto start: fire detectors open the valves of the powder containers.
2 – Manual electrical operating by an electrical manual switch that act like the fire detectors.
3 - Mechanical manual operation: by manual mechanical means.
 2-7/3/4/3  Design: the dry chemical powder system must be designed, implemented and maintained in accordance with the requirements and specifications of the civil defense.
 2-7/3/5  Foam and water system:
A network of pipes spread to the places that need protection, and it is fed from the water and foam source, either mixed together, or are mixed before they flow on the burning surface.
This mixture flows in the appearance of bubbles that form an isolating cover to the outside air away from the burning surface. Then water does the cooling process.
 2-7/3/5/1  Types of foam in terms of expansion:
1 – Low expanding.
2 –Medium expanding.
3 – High expanding.
 2-7/3/5/2  Types of foam fire-fighting:
Foam systems are divided according to the way of performance to the following types:
1 - fixed network system.
2 - Generating system (special for the foam system).
 2-7/3/5/3  The fire fighting foam system operates as follows:
1 - Auto start: by the fire detectors, or through a panel warning for the operation of pumps or other means that pushes the solution.
2 - Manual mechanical operating and it happens by opening the valve of the foam or the mixing systems
3 – Manual electrical operating: The operation of pumps or other means such as the electrical files to open the traps.
4 - Remote control: by prior programming with a TV camera.
 2-7/3/5/4  Design: the fire-fighting systems must be designed, implemented and installed in accordance to the terms and specifications (Part II) or the regulation of Civil Defense.
 2-7/3/6  Fixed automatic units (Modeler Extinguisher):
They are individual firefighting units installed in the premises that need to be protected. And it works automatically to push its stockpile of material fire at the time of the fire.
 2-7/3/6/1  the distribution, type and size must be  appropriate for the purpose of protecting places in accordance with the terms of Civil Defense.
 2-7/3/6/2  Units must be in accordance with international standards adopted by the Civil Defense.
 2-7/3/6/3  The units must be provided with regular maintenance by the certified maintenance contractor in accordance with the terms of Civil Defense.

• Fixed automatic fire extinguishers (Modeler Extinguisher)
 Figure 2-6

 2-8  Fire alarm systems:
fire alarm systems are divided into two main types:
• Manual alarm  system
• Automatic alarm system
 2-8/1  Manual alarm system is a device that works manually through the keys  that are distributed in special places, and it works by electricity. It has two kinds:
1 – Warning points that are operated manually by breaking the glass cover.
2 - Warning points that are operated manually by switching a special key.
 2-8/1/1  Hand-warning system consists of:
1 - pressing a button (with a cover glass or key).
2 - Warning bell.
3 - Control panel.
 2-8/2  Automatic warning system: is a system that works by electrical energy to sense the seriousness of fire and then making the alarm signal. such system alarms are requested, and they define its type according to the kind of the building and its use, and in accordance to the terms of the civil defense.
 2-8/2/1  Automatic warning system consists of:
1 - fire detectors (smoke - the flame - heat - etc.).
2 - Warning bell.
3 - Control panel.
 2-8/2/2  This type of alarms work automatically by one of the following means:
1 - With tools associated with automatic fire equipment or central air-conditioning system.
2 - By sensitive instruments (lights) that are affected by the heat.
3 - By sensitive instruments (lights) that are affected by the smoke.
4 - By sensitive instruments (lights) that are affected by the flame beyond the red ray..
5 - The mechanical warning (bell ... etc.) that works by pressure resulting from the automatic sprinkler system during its work.