رقم الدفاع المدنى 998

General requirements to the ways of escape (emergency exits)


• General requirements to the ways of escape (emergency exits)
 
Index

 Symbol  Third part: General requirements to the ways of escape (emergency exits)
 3-1  The components of the ways to escape (emergency exits)
 3-2  Requirements of the ways to escape (emergency exits)
 3-3  The principles in designing the the ways to escape (emergency exits)
 3-3/1  Transition distance
 3-3/1/8  Closed ends in the passages of the ways to escape (emergency exits)
 3-3/1/9  Direct distance
 3-3/2  Absorption capacity for the ways to escape (emergency exits)
 3-3/3  Rise of the ways to escape (emergency exits)
 3-3/4  Width of the ways to escape (emergency exits)
 3-3/7  The number of the ways to escape (emergency exits)
 3-3/8 Distribution of the ways to escape (emergency exits)
 3-4  General requirements of the ways to escape (emergency exits)
 3-4/1  Building materials
 3-4/2  Protection from the danger of fire and smoke
 3-4/3  Protecting the holes that are found in the separating walls
 3-4/4  Interior finishing procedure for the ways to escape (emergency exits)
 3-5  Lighting the ways to escape (emergency exits)
 3-6  Emergency lightings for the 3-ways to escape (emergency exits)
 3-7  Guidance signs of the ways to escape (emergency exits)
 3-8  Protection from falling while using the ways to escape (emergency exits)
 3-9  The doors of the ways to escape (emergency exits)
 3-9/4  Organizing the motion of the doors of the ways to escape (emergency exits)
 3-9/5  Opening means of the doors of the ways to escape (emergency exits)
 3-9/6  Special automatic doors the ways to escape (emergency exits)
 3-9/7  Rotating doors
3-9/8 The ways to escape (emergency exits) when restricts the movement of the users of the building.
3-9/9 The vision field through the ways to escape (emergency exits)
3-9/10 The passages of the ways to escape (emergency exits)

Related to the index

 symbol  Related to the third part: special requirements for the ways to escape (emergency exit)
 3-10/6  The floor of the ways to escape (emergency exit)
 3-11  The interior stairs
 3-12  Specifications of the stairs of the ways to escape (emergency exit)
 3-13  Protecting the stairs of the ways to escape (emergency exit)
 3-14  Ventilation for the ways to escape (emergency exit)
 3-14/1  Natural ventilation
 3-14/2  Mechanical ventilation
 3-15  Distributing the stairs of the ways to escape (emergency exit)
 3-16  The exterior stairs
 3-17  Bridges, balconies, and exterior passages
 3-18  Slopes
 3-19  The final exit of the ways to escape (emergency exit)
 3-20  Horizontal exits for the ways to escape (emergency exit)
 3-21  Special escape ways
 3-21/2  Spiral stair case
 3-21/3  Fixed straight stairs
 3-21/4  Fixed inclined stairs  
 3-21/5
 3-22  Exterior windows

• General Conditions of ways to escape from fire
Index tables

 Number of the table  Table name
 3-1  The transition distance to the different regions in the building.
 3-2  The minimum width the ways to escape.(emergency exit)
 3-3  The evacuation of the building in the fire cases.
 3-4  Estimate the number of the users of the building.
 3-5  Number of exits required to a certain number of people.

 • General requirements of ways to escape (emergency exits)

 3-1  Ways to escape (emergency exits):
  Ways to escape (emergency exits) are (passage) or more safe passages to allow the people who are found in the building from escaping through any starting point in the building to reach the outside of the building directly. Or to a safe place from fire, which in its turn leads to the outside of the building where it is away from fire.
 3-1/1  Adequate ways to escape (emergency exits) must be provided in the buildings, facilities and shops, in order to find a way out to evacuate the users and occupants of the building, and to keep them away from the fire sector, in order to protect them and their lives from injury and fire.
 3-1/2  Ways of escape (emergency doors) is consisted from different parts such as passage, stairs, balconies, bridges, slopes, doors, exits, and others. It consist totally a whole unit (emergency doors) ways to escape).
 3-1/3  All of the facilities, buildings, and shops under the license civil defense Must be equipped with fire-fighting equipment and warning alarms and appropriate prevention in accordance with these conditions.
 3-1/4  You may not make any amendments or additions to the building which could breach these conditions, as well as you may not change the nature of the exploitation of the building unless the ways of escape are modified (emergency exits) to suit the new exploitation conditions.
 3-1/5  Civil Defense the right to set conditions as it deems appropriate for special cases and in which there was no text set, or in which he sees that there is an unusual risk of fire.

 3-2  Requirements for the ways to escape (emergency doors).
 3-2/1  In any event, it is not be allowed to let the escape route passes through the room or place that may be closed, and it is not allowed  to pass near the place where there is a seriousness of fire unless separated by a barrier to prevent the spread of the fire.
 3-2/2  In the case of continuing the path of escape to below the level of the final exit (as in the case of the continuation of the stairs to the basement), you break this continuity with a preventive wall to the spread of the fire in order to avoid the path of the escape from ending in the basement or any dangerous place.
 3-2/3  Fix enough number of the sign and arrow plates in the path of the ways to escape that reveals the direction of the path. And in case the path was objected by any door that leads to a dangerous place or to a closed end, warning plates must be set on that door explicit and clear.
 3-2/4  The way to escape must not be covered with any combustible material or may cause a slide or rebound.
 3-2/5  It is not allowed to put or install any kind of furniture, equipment, barriers, anything fixed, or mobile which it may reduce the wideness of the exit of escape or impede its use.
 3-2/6  The exit door must always be in a usable condition, and it is prohibited to be used for any other means than what it is specialized for.
 3-2/7  Install walls preventative from falling in the routes of escape (emergency exits). It is a part free from stairs, or it is a bridge or the highest edge of the surfaces and so on. But the glass panels and what is similar are not considered to be protective barriers.3-2/8
 3-2/8  Provide natural or mechanical ventilation in the ways to escape.
Provide a natural or artificial lighting in the way out to the exit. And in the collective, high, or public buildings such as hotels, cinema, factories, and others it is conditioned to have a reserve power to backup the electrical power in case it was disconnected. The reserve lighting should include signs and arrow panels that show to the ways of exit (emergency exits).
 3-2/9  Providing and maintaining alarm systems and firefighting inside the building is the responsibility of the owner, while the tenant has only to remove the obstacles from the escaping passages and preserving the alarm devices and firefighting in the rented part of the building, unless the lease show other than that.

 3-3  The principles in designing the ways to escape (emergency exits):
 3-3/1  Transition distance.
 3-3/1/1  The rescue and exits ways must be organized in a way that the transition distance should not from any point and the nearest exit in the floor more than the distance shown in the following chart 3-1, unless there is something else in the preventive conditions for the buildings according to their usages.
 

 • Transition distance to different areas in the buildings

 Type region  

   Transition direction

 One way

 Two directions or more

 Opened region

 15m

 40m

 Divided region

 10m

 30m

 An region divided by a passage

 10m

 30m

 Fire sectors less than 50m2

 Not specified

 Not specified

 Fire sectors less than 150m2 with less than 50 people

 Not allowed

 30m

 Fire sectors less than 150m2 with more than 50 people

 Not allowed

 30m

 Protected passage

 10m

 30m

Table 3-1

 3-3/1/2  The distance is measured on the actual course of flight, from the point at a distance of at (30 cm) from the furthest point in the building until the middle of the final exit, or the safe means of escape which in turn leads to the final exit.
 3-3/1/3  In rooms or Independent apartments, the distance is measured from the entrance, provided under a condition that its depth should not be more than (15 meters),and its capacity should not be overloaded than the specified number according to the preventive conditions of the buildings and their exploitation.
 3-3/1/4  The maximum distance of transition should not exceed in the protected passages to reach the nearest exit (another fire sector or protected staircase) more than 30m.
 3-3/1/5  Regions in which there is a manufacture or storage of easy combustible materials, multiply the values listed in the previous table 3-1 by (0.5) to the distance of transition.
 3-3/1/6 Unusual facilities for individuals or in which they can’t move by themselves:
The transition is not allowed to be in one direction (closed ending).
The transition distance listed in table 3-1 must be multiplied by 0.75.
 3-3/1/7  You increase the distance by 50% if the automatic water sprinklers and automatic fire detections are available, where as the increase should not be more than 25% in open regions.

  Figure 3-1 

 Measuring the transition distance:

Figure 3-2

 3-3/1/8  Closed ends in the ways to escape (emergency exit)
 3-3/1/8/1  It is measured in the same way of the transition distance is calculated, from the farthest point to the exit, or from the farthest point to the entrance in to two different directions, under a condition that the distance should not exceed 7.5m.
 3-3/1/9  Direct distance: is the shortest imaginary line inside the building, which connects between the farthest point and the exit.
 3-3/1/9/1  In case it was difficult to calculate the transition distance during the design because of the lack of information about the nature of the use, assume the presence of the imaginary line called the direct distance and which is the shortest line in the building that connects between the farthest point and the exit, regardless the obstacles that encounter. And this line is estimated on the basis that the transition distance = 1.5 the direct distance.
 3-3/2  The absorptive capacity to the ways to escape (emergency exit).
 3-3/2/1  The capacity is estimated according to the maximum number of people that might be present in the building or in any part of it at any time, under a condition that the number should not be less than the number listed in the following table 3-2.

• The minimum width of the ways to escape (emergency exits):

 Parts of ways to escape  

The net width of the ways to escape in meters         

 Number of people

 

 100

 150

 200

 250

 300

 Doors and passages

 0.80

 0.85

 1.00

 1.00

 1.5

 Stairs

 0.75

 1.00

 1.30

 1.30

 3.00

Table 3-2 

 3-3/2/2  The width of the passage to escape in the previous chart is estimated according to the number of people using it in emergency cases, and it is preferred that the width of the exits and escaping passages not to be less than 100cm.
 3-3/2/3  Updating method can be used to calculate the values confined between 100 and 300 people of the building's occupants, to find the minimum limit of the net width in meters for the escaping passages.
 3-3/2/4  In case there was more than 300 person of the occupants of the building, the net width must be increased by (0.05m) for each increase that ranges with (10) people to in case of the use the passages, and (8) person in the usage the stairs.
 3-3/2/5  In recurrent deck, the highest number of people is taken in one floor only to estimate the capacity of the exits, in which it shouldn’t be less than the capacity of the (emergency exit), the main escaping ways that lead to the final exits.
 3-3/2/6  If the number of people is more than 1000 person, an additional exit must be provided with a width of 152cm for each 500 additional person. And the width of the stairs and staircase equivalent in all stages up till the final exit. But in the cases that are not mentioned in the chart, the civil defense specify the appropriate measurements according to the conditions of the design.
 3-3/3  Rise of the (emergency exits) ways to escape: the ways to escape are designed in a way that the net height of any of its parts less than 2.2m.
 3-3/4  The breadth of the ways to escape (emergency exits):
 3-3/4/1  The width of the ways to escape (emergency exits) according to the table number 3-2, in order for the width of the escaping ways (emergency exits) enough to handle the people that are present in the building. And the width of the net vacuum is calculated at the narrowest point in any part of the constitutes of the escaping ways.
 3-3/4/2  When the escaping ways confluence (emergency exits) from the upper floors to the lower floor (basement). In the lower floor the capacity from the meeting point till the exit must not be less than the total capacity of all of them.
3-3/4/3 The widening of the exits is linked to the time of evacuation of the place, and the number of the users of the building. The evacuation period differs from one building to another according to the difference in the safety procedures available in the building. Table 3-3 shows the estimation of the evacuation periods in the buildings.

• Evacuation period of the buildings in the fire cases

 Building type

   Proposed time for evacuation

 Buildings in which the safety conditions are available, and it doesn’t have fire seriousness.

 3

 Three minutes

 Buildings in which the safety conditions are available, and it does have fire risk.

 2.5

 Two and a half minutes

 Buildings in which the safety conditions are not available, and it does have fire risk.
Buildings in which the safety conditions are available, and it does have a high fire risk.

 2

 Two minutes

 

 Sequence order

 Description of the building

 Area in meter square for each person (m2/person)

 Number of people for each meter square (person/m2)

 1

 Family house

 -

 2

 Residential building

 -

 3

Hotel buildings

   
 

 Hotels rooms

 15.00

 0.07

 

 restaurants

 4.00

 0.25

 

 conference rooms

 1.00

 0.15

 4

 Commercial stores (supermarkets)

 0.75

 1.33

 

 Central shops

 2.00

 0.50

 

 Small commercial shops

 -

 5

 School buildings

 3.00

 0.30

 6

 Building communities

   
 

 showrooms

 1.50

 0.67

 

 showrooms

 7.00

 0.15

 

 Health care center

   
 

Hospital  wards

 15.00

 0.07

 

 Elderly care homes

 15.00

 0.07

 

 Day care hospitals

 0.50

 0.50

 

 Parking

 15.00

 0.07

 

 Industrial buildings

 10.00

 0.10

 

 Warehouse buildings

 -

Important note: Important note: the number of occupants of the building is determined on the basis of their actual number in the case of the presence of fixed seating.

  Table 3-4

 3-3/5  Average of flow in the ways of escape (emergency exits).
 3-3/5/1  Average of flow in the ways of escape (emergency exits): is the exit of 40 person in one minute from the same unit.
 3-3/6  Capacity of the units:
 3-3/6/1  Capacity of the units: is the needed unit for the exit of people according to a specified average of flow estimated in (40 people per minute) in a definite time and according to the type of risk in the building and to what extent the terms of protection are provided. (see table 3-3)
For example: how many units are needed for the exit of 480 person in an evacuation period of three minutes?
Solution: (3x40)÷480=4 units

•   Mathematical formula to calculate the number of units required:

   Expanding the number of units  The number of the people in the building
 Flow average x evacuation time in minutes

 3-3/7  The number of the exits of the escaping ways (openings of the emergency exits).
 3-3/7/1  The number of the exits of the escaping ways (openings of the emergency exits):is the minimum number of the exit openings required to be provided to let the people get out according to a specified average of flow, and it is estimated by (40 person per minute) in a specified time.
3-3/7/2   Example 1: how many is the number of the exits of ways to escape (openings of the emergency exits) that are required to be provided to exit 480 person from the building in three minutes?
Solution: (the number of units ÷ 4)+2= 1+(4÷4)=1
Example 2: how many is the number of the exits of ways to escape (openings of the emergency exits) that are required to be provided in a building that is required for it 8 units?
Solution: (the number of units ÷ 4)+3= 1+(4÷8)=1

 • Mathematical formula to calculate the number of (emergency exits holes) required exits to escape:

 

   The number of emergency exits

Number of units 

   +1

 4

 Number of people

 Number of exits

 Minimum net of the width of the exit

 Maximum 200 person

 2

 90cm

 Maximum 300 person

 2

 122cm

 Maximum 500 person

 2

 152cm

 Maximum 750 person

 3

 152cm

 Maximum 1000 person

 4

 152cm

Table 4-3

 3-3/7/3   The number of exits must be according to the protective conditions of the buildings and to the type of usage, except for the required condition, all buildings must have at least two exits independent and apart each leading to the outside directly.
 3-3/7/4  It is preferred to take into account when calculating the required number of exits that there is a potential that one maybe have disruption due to fire but the rest is sufficient to absorb the maximum number of person that they are assumed to be there at any time, taking into account the terms of distribution and area, and leave the estimate for the Civil Defense.
 3-3/8  Distribution of the ways of escape (emergency exits):
 3-3/8/1  The distribution of the ways to escape must be regulated to give the best possible coverage for the entire area.
 3-3/8/2  Ways to escape (emergency exits) must be distributed on the parties of the building so as to avoid a closed end as far as possible, and that the area of the closed end should not exceed the required limit allowed in the protective conditions for the buildings and according to the type of exploitation.
 3-3/8/3  Ways to escape (emergency exits) must be distributed apart from each other, so as not to hamper together in a fire, and the minimum limit of the area can be calculated between two exits in the same place, by one of the following two ways:
The meeting corner of two exits with any point in the place not less than 45 degrees.
The distance between two exits is not less than half the area of the place.
 3-3/8/4  During the dividing of the floor for more than one renter or occupants, the ways to escape (emergency exits) must be accessible to people present in all of the divisions of the same floor at the same time.

• Distribution of ways to escape (emergency exits)
 The meeting of two exits with any point must not be less than 45 degrees.
 The distance between the two exits must not be less than half the area of the place.

 

 3-4  General requirements of the ways to escape (emergency exits):
 3-4/1  Building Materials: the ways of exit (emergency exits) must be established from non-combustible and fire resistant to the proper degree as an element of the structure of the building.
 3-4/1/1  The resistance should not be less than one hour in the buildings that consist of three buildings, and two hours to the buildings that have more than three floors.
 3-4/2  Protection from fire and smoke: the ways to escape must be separated from the rest of the building, to protect them from fire and smoke risk, by barriers to prevent the spread of the fire and which are made from non-combustible, and fire-resistant in the most adequate degree.
 3-4/3  Protecting the openings found in the separating walls by doors preventing the spread of fire and smoke, according to these conditions, and to limit the number of the openings to what is only necessary to enter and exit.
 3-4/  Finishing procedure of the ways to escape (emergency exits): Materials used in the finishing procedure of ways to escape should be not combustible as much as possible, and not of the type that increase the seriousness of fire, and in any way it must be with a very low degree for the spread of flames on the surface (degree Zero).

 3-5  Lighting the ways to escape (emergency exits): it should be available in all parts of ways to escape the adequate natural lighting, or artificial lighting.
 3-5/1  In the case of the artificial electric lighting, it must be in accordance with the specifications of the Ministry of Electricity and be from a reliable source.
 3-5/2  Distributing the lighting to all parts of the ways to escape (emergency exits), so any disruption in one of the lights does not lead to the proliferation of darkness, or the lack of clarity of vision at any point in the course of escape.
 3-5/3  Lighting must be sustained during all the period of need, and with the adequate degree of lighting, and no less than 10 units of light (metaphor for the word candle) [10 Lux] on Earth.

 3-6  Emergency lighting of ways to escape (emergency exits): all the parts of ways to escape (emergency exits) must be provided with the adequate lighting that works in case of an emergency such as the disruption of the normal lighting, in accordance with these terms and conditions, or according to what is recommended by the Civil Defense.
 3-6/1  The emergency lighting of ways to escape (emergency exits) is fed from a secondary source of power, other than the main source in order to be sufficient to serve for at least two hours or according to the terms of Civil Defense.
 3-6/2  Emergency lighting works automatically at an interval time not more than ten seconds, or to be running continuously when the main source goes off.
 3-6/3  In the case of the continuous flow (batteries) as a source to feed the emergency lighting, it must be of an accredited system and tailored according to the second section of the civil defense.
 3-6/4  In the allowed cases and which are mentioned in the terms of protective conditions of the buildings according to the type of use, the emergency lighting might be of electrical independent lighting units that are fed from the normal source of the power and self-loaded, and in which it works automatically for two hours when the power is off, under a condition that it must be adopted by the civil defense.
 

 3-7  Indication signs for the ways to escape (emergency exits): the means of escape must be equipped with indication signs that are required, and to be set in the right place in accordance with the terms of protective conditions of the buildings depending on the type of exploitation, in order to define ways to escape and to indicate to its track, and guidance to any special instructions regarding the escape ways specially, and the safety in general.

 • Guidance signs that shows the way out
 
Figure 3-5

 3-7/1  These signs should have the adequate size, expression, symbol, and color according to the technical specifications of the civil defense, in which it seems to be clear, distinct, and different to the vicinity of lightning, finishing, colors, and design, and it is forbidden to set any installation or lighting that hamper the vision or draw attention away from it.
 3-7/2  The (exit) signs are fixed on the exits directly, and the sign that contains (exit with an arrow) to show the direction of the escape passage, when the path is not clear or apparent for the individuals, such as corners, and in which any point in the path should not be away from the sign with more than 30m.

• Some places with installed guidance signs

Figure 3-6

 3-7/3 Where the preventive conditions of the buildings are required depending on the type of exploitation, the indication signs must be lit from the same regular source of lighting as well as emergency lighting, under a condition that the lighting degree should not be less 55 watt at the surface of the mark. 
 3-7/4  Each door, corridor, or stairs used as part of an approved means of escape, but due to its location it might suggest ambiguous, and escape to an unsafe place, there must be fixed another sign written on it the actual use (such as the basement), (storage room) and others.

 3-8  Protection from falling during the use of escape (emergency exits): You must install barriers to protect against falling (rail) to the entire edges free from all of the components of ways to escape, and any other part of the building to which people can access to, such as the surface, the major gaps on the roof and balconies, etc., as well as the edge of the corridor.

 3-8 Rail for protection from falling on the stairs:

Figure 3-7

 3-8/1  Barriers are installed on the stairs from one side which have the width less than 120cm, and to the stairs on both sides if they have a width more than the previous one.
 3-8/2  If the width of the stairs was more than (180) cm, an additional rail should be installed in the middle. In this case, the stairs is divided into two separate independent divisions, each subject to the width terms of the stairs.
 3-8/3  The height of the barriers against falling must not be less than 90cm in the internal parts, and 20cm in the exterior parts of the building.
 3-8/4  Glass is not in any way considered to be a barrier against falling and where there are sheets of glass on the facades or windows, extra barriers should be set to protect from falling according to these conditions.
 3-8/5  If there is a difference in the level of ground over (18) cm or what exceeds more than one degree in height, barriers made from incombustible materials to protect from falling should be installed.
 3-8/5/1  The barriers that protect against falling must be designed and well fixed in order to be able to handle any horizontal or vertical pressure, and it must be applied in a safe way in order to avoid injuring the people or to hang up the clothes when it is touched.
 3-8/5/2  The vacuum in the barriers must not be more than (10) cm so as not to leave room for meddling in parts of the body, and bars that are properly designed in order to prevent the children from climbing.
 3-8/5/3  When the barrier is installed on the side of the stairs on the side of the wall, a vacuum must left with at least (4 cm) between the handle and the wall.

• The vacuum allowed between the handle and the wall must be at least (4 cm):

Figure 3-8

 3-9  Ways to escape doors (emergency exits): These conditions are applied to all sections with all of its components, in addition to a frame and equipments if they were a part of the means of escape.
 3-9/1  When the doors to escape are preventative doors against fire and smoke at the same time, the conditions which are mentioned in the section of the structural preventive precautions should be applied in addition to these conditions.
 3-9/2  The width of the door is the net width when the door is opened to its leaf.
 3-9/3  Ground level to the ways to escape (emergency exits): The ground of the level ways to escape on both sides of the door must be equal to a distance not less than the width of the door itself.

 • Measuring the net width of the door

  Figure 3-9 Figure 3-10

 3-9/4  Regulate the movement of the doors of the ways to escape (emergency exits).
 3-9/4/1  The emergency doors must be opened in the direction of the escaping paths.
 3-9/4/2   The effort to open the door must not be more than (23kg on the door’s knob).

• Opening the emergency doors:

 3-9/4/3  The movement of the leaf of the door should not affect on the capacity of the ways of escape that lead to it. And its movement should not form an obstacle to use these escaping paths in general.
 3-9/4/3/1  The movement of the leaf of the door must not affect on the width of the stairs, its capacity, or any constituents of the escaping paths more than half the required width.
 3-9/4/3/2  If the door open towards the corridor, it should be opened at an angle of (180) degrees so that 15cm of the wall is revealed.
 3-9/4/3/3  In case there was the presence of consecutive doors as in the staircase, the dimension between the ranges of the two doors must be not less than 1.5m, or between the scopes of the leaf of the door more than 1m.

• The doors of the staircase (the lobby corridors)

Figure 3-12

 3-9/4/4  All the tools and locks that are used in the formation of the door, especially the hinges, must be from incombustible materials with a melting point 800 degrees Celsius.
 3-9/4/5  The locks must be of the type that doesn’t require a key or any special knowledge to be opened.

• The doors of the staircase (the hall of the mazes)
 Two types of the handles to open the emergency door (Panic Bar)

 3-9/4/6  When it is required to keep the door in the escaping path closed to prevent the spread of fire and smoke or anything else, it must be supplied with an automatic closing system of the approved type with an appropriate force that fully shuts the door after it is opened.
 3-9/4/7  When it is important to keep the door preventive to fire opened, automatic closing system must be provided.
 

Figure 3-14

 3-9/5  The means of opening the doors of the ways to escape (emergency exit: Means opening the door to escape (emergency exits): in buildings and areas that are designated by the preventive conditions of the buildings depending on the type of exploitation, provide its exiting doors by a fast opening mean leading to the outside in case of emergency, and which is approved by the civil defense (Panic Bar).
 3-9/5/1  This mean must be a bar or an arm in which length of its mobile part is not less than 75cm with a rise not more than 110cm from the ground.
 3-9/5/2  These means are not required to be equipped with any lock or tools that may hinder or disrupt the openings of the doors in the emergency cases.
 3-9/6  Automatic doors special for the ways to escape (emergency exits): are the automatic doors that open due to an optical cell at the approach of people, or due to any other automatic mean. Also the doors that open and close automatically must be equipped with a manual mean to open and close it easily when the automatic system is out of service.
 3-9/7  The rotating doors are not considered to be a part of the escaping ways, and in case they are presented, they must have to their side an adopted type according to the conditions.
 3-9/8  The use of the ways to escape during restricting the movement of the building’s occupants: for security reasons or any other reason, enough procedures must be done to facilitate the use of the escaping ways immediately during emergency.
 3-9/8/1  In case it is necessary to close the escaping ways, the key must be stored in a closed box with a glass cover fixed over the door in order to be used in emergency, and when this is impossible, and then each case will be studied separately by the civil defense to set the appropriate arrangements.
 3-9/8/2  When the barriers, ropes, or chains are set to control the movements of entrance and exits for the sake of arranging or buying tickets or anything else, the elimination of these barriers must be immediately during emergency, or to be in a state that does not consist any conflict to the usage of these escaping ways, or even lowering its capacity or efficiency.
 3-9/9  The vision zone through the doors of the escaping ways(emergency exits): doors that swing in both directions, the doors of the interior rooms (a room inside a room), a hole is being made in the door which s covered by armed transparent glass to allow vision, and in which the height of the glass bar is as the level of the normal vision (150-170cm) and in case of disabled people (100cm).
 3-10  The passages of the escaping ways (emergency exits): Corridors of escape (emergency exits): When access is not available to reach the exit directly due to the imperative of the design, there must be cleared and safe corridors leading to the exits immediately without a closed ending, and if this is not possible, the distance of the closed end should not exceed (7.5) meters.
 3-10/1  The passages must be provided with the general conditions as a constituent of the ways to escape in addition to these conditions.
 3-10/2  The passages must be provided with safety from fire and smoke, and this safety might be represented in the form of ready barriers having the necessary degree of resistance in case the building was equipped with automatic water sprinklers, or when the conditions allow that.
 3-10/3  The width of the passages must be enough to accommodate the number of people using it in which it shouldn’t be less than the exit it leads to, and must not be less than 150cm in the main passages, and 120cm in the passages inside the apartments.

Figure 3-15

 3-10/4  Corridors should be distributed so that everyone can easily access freely to all of the exits of the floor, and in more than one direction, and it is preferred to organize the corridors in an annular shape so as to facilitate access to the rest of the exits in case of the failure of one due to fire.
 3-10/5  Preventive doors against smoke must be set in the corridors, and which closes automatically according to the protective conditions in the structural fields and in the following cases:
 3-10/5/1  If the length of the corridor in half the distance is more than 30m.
 3-10/5/2  At the contact point of the main passages with the secondary ones.
 3-10/5/3  In any location requested by the protective conditions against the risk smoke.
 3-10/6  Any difference in the level of the floors of the passages, a stairs or a slope should be provided to transit from one level to another, and when the difference is less than 45cm a slope must be used instead of the stairs.
 3-11  Interior stairs: the interior stairs consist an important part of the ways to escape (emergency exits) because it is found in a well that passes vertically through the building.
 3-11/1  The escape stairs must be made of incombustible substances, and must be separated from other parts of the building through doors and walls resistible to fire not less than an hour and which should be easy to reach to the outside directly, or to a hole empty from obstacles which leads in its turn to the outside.
 3-11/2  The floor of all the stairs must be solid, non-slip, and non-perforated.
 3-12/3  Barriers must be set to prevent from falling according to the terms of protecting from falling.

 Figure 3-16

 3-12  Specifications of the stairs of ways to escape (emergency exits):
 3-12/1  The staircase width is the net dimension between the face of the wall and the railing, or the other wall.
 3-12/2  The width of the stairs must be enough to accommodate the people in accordance with the terms of protective conditions for the buildings depending on the type of exploitation and according to Table 3-2a minimum width of the (emergency exits) ways to escape.
 3-12/3  The extrapolation method is used to calculate the values ranging between 100 and 300 people of the building’s occupants, in order to find the minimum limit of the net width of the ways to escape in meters in the floor as it is shown in the paragraph 3-4/4/3.
 3-12/4  In case there were more than 300 persons of the building’s occupants, then the net width must be increased by 0.05 meters for each increase of ten people to use the passages, and eight persons to use the stairs as it is stated in paragraph 3-4/4/4.
 3-12/5  Is the number of people was more than 1000 persons, an extra exit must be provided with a width of 152cm for each 500 extra person, as well as the width of the stairs and the landing of the staircase must be equivalent in all the stages and up till the final exit.
 3-12/6  The depth of the stair (tread)should not be less than 28cm, with a height ranges from 15-18cm, and the relation between the width of the stair and its height will keep on submitting to the following equation:
Height x 2 + width = 60 to 65cm.

• The relationship between the erect and tread in the stairs:
Figure 3-17

 3-12/7  The steps of the stairs Should be organized in a group of (courses) in which each course contains not more than 14 steps, and not less than three steps. And each course is ended by a landing of a staircase.
 3-12/8  The width of the landing of the staircase should not be less than the width of the stairs itself.
 3-12/9  The number of the steps that are successive in one course must be equal in depth and height, without any difference more than 5mm. and a disparity is allowed but not more than 10mm between the biggest and the smallest rise, or the depth of the step in the total courses.

• The use of the curved steps:

Figure 3-18

 3-12/10  The curved stairs can be used under a condition that the minimum width should be less than 25cm, and the distance from the center of the curve to the beginning of the curved stair from the center’s side, must not be less than twice the width of the stairs.
 3-13  Protection of the stairs of the ways to escape (emergency exits) from fire and smoke: The general conditions for protection from fire and smoke must be provided to the stairs in accordance with the protective conditions in the fields construction in addition to these terms.
 3-13/1  In buildings higher than six floors, or that is under the protective conditions of the buildings depending on the type of exploitation, the staircase must be separated from the building by an isolating space organized according to the terms of the stairs, regarding what is related to the building, ventilation, doors, etc., so as to provide double protection for the stairs.
 3-13/2  It is more preferred to set the equipment of fire in the isolating area, so as to be in a place protected from the risk of fire, used by the firefighters as a point of readiness and departure to fight the fire.
 3-14  Ventilating the ways of escape (emergency exits): there must be provided to the stairs that is considered the only means of escape, the necessary ventilation to dispose the smoke in case it leaked to the staircase.
 3-14/1  Ventilation is done according to the natural means such as:
 3-14/1/1  Windows capable of opening, on the outer wall of the building, with an area not less than 1.5m2 in each floor.
 3-14/1/2  A permanent hole in the ceiling of the staircase of an area equals to (5%) of the area of the floor of the staircase, and not less than (1 m2), or a window capable of opening, with an adopted manual mean that is operated from the ground floor in an easy way and in the same movement with the same measurement.
 3-14/1/3  In buildings where the stairs is allowed to be on the outside wall, the ventilation windows may overlook on a special place special for this purpose and that does not include any services that may lead to dangerous fire.
 3-14/1/4  In all cases, when it is necessary to keep the ventilation windows closed for the purpose of air conditioning, or otherwise, the windows must be easy to be opened by the men of the civil defense during emergency, through manual tools easy to use with one movement. These means are put in clear places such as the entrance, with the installation of guidance panel having the words (a manual key for ventilation).
 3-14/2  Ventilation might be due to mechanical means that are approved by the protective conditions of the buildings according to the type of usage.
 3-14/2/1  The stairs can be protected with a system of increasing the pressure instead of the ventilation system, and this is to keep it free from smoke and in which the system of increasing the pressure is designed according to the approved specifications.

• Stairs compressed by air

Figure 3-19

 3-15  Distributing the ways of escape (emergency exits): except for the cases approved by the protective terms of the buildings according to the type of using, the stairs must be on the outside wall of the building in order to avoid a closed ending. And in the premises with one stairs, the stairs must also be on the outside wall of the building.
 3-15/1  The stairs may not be in continuation from the upper floors to the basement, and in independent stairs must be formed for the basement. And in cases where it is impossible to do so, the continuous vacuum of the stairs must be separated by a resisting wall to fire formed from the ceiling to the floor, which makes the only entrance to the basement directly from the outside.
 3-15/2  Setting guidance signs inside the staircase to show the floor’s number.

• Relationship between the building and the stairs:

Figure 3-20

 3-16  External stairs: when the external stairs is a part of the ways to escape, in addition to those conditions the terms of the internal stairs are applied, except for the protective conditions from fire.
 3-16/1  It is allowed in some special cases that are approved by the civil defense, to form the stairs from a metal structure, under a condition that it should be tackled to be protected from weather circumstances.
 3-16/2  The outer stairs is separated from the building by walls made from incombustible materials with an adequate resisting degree, and covers the openings that overlook at the stairs with resistible doors to fire which close automatically, and windows with armed glass resistible to fire according to the following:
 3-16/2/1  Within a distance of 3 meters (horizontal, vertical, and in depth).
 3-16/2/2  This is not needed in the last floor if the stairs is not connected to the roof.
 3-16/3  Guidance signs must be set on the doors of the stair to reveal the number of the floor.
 3-17  Bridges, balconies, and the exterior passages: when the bridges and balconies are classified as a part of the ways to escape, the terms of the outer stairs are applied in addition to these conditions,
 3-17/1  The height of the sides of the openings that overlook at the balconies or outside paths must not be less than 2m, and it must be made out of concrete.
 3-17/2  The width must be adequate to accommodate the people who are going to use it under a condition that it must not be less than 1.5m.
 3-18  Slope: it is the curved way that is alternative of the stairs in moving from one level to another in the ways to escape. And the general conditions of the stairs are applied in addition to those terms.
 3-18/1  Floors must be solid, rough and not sliding.
 3-18/2  The percentage of the curve must be the same in all the parts of the slope.
 3-18/3  The landing of the staircase must be used during the switching of the direction.
 3-18/4  The proportion of the slope should not be more than 1:10.

• Horizontal exits to the ways to escape:
Figure 3-22

 3-20/1  In the case the both sides are considered to be safety, another exit in the opposite direction on the same barrier, through which each of the sides become a safe region for the other and with setting the appropriate guidance signs.
 3-20/2  The temporary exits may be an alternative of the half of the main exits in the building, under a condition that the terms of distance must be provided, and the temporary exits should contain at least one stairs that lead to the final exit directly.
 3-20/3  The area of the safety location must be sufficient to accommodate the maximum number of people that are supposed to be present on both sides on the basis of 0.3m2 per person.
 3-20/4  The safety area might not be in the building, but it is found in a near premises, bridge, or passage in which they all in their turn will lead to the highway according to the general terms of the ways to escape.
 3-20/5  The safety regions that are reached through he temporary ways of escape must be related to one renter, only in special cases that are approved by the civil defense.
 3-20/6  In all conditions,, locks are not allowed to be set on the temporary exits or any mean that can prevent its usage at any time.
 3-21  Special escape ways: it is the spiral stairs, the fixed erect stairs, fixed tread stairs, and the automatic emergency stairs.
 3-21/1  Special means of escape are allowed to be used according to these conditions and in the following cases:
 3-21/1/1  The erect buildings in which it is impossible to apply the appropriate ways of escape according to the conditions.
 3-21/1/2  In special conditions, and to serve a specified number of people, such as machine rooms and the elevator case on the roof, the towers, factories, and so on.
 3-21/1/3  The special ways to escape might be one of the means stated in these terms, or any other mean approved by the civil defense.
 3-21/2  The spiral stairs is allowed to be used for the service of five people approximately, and for the buildings that consist of three floors only, under a condition that the stairs must be with the following specifications:
 3-21/2/1  The diameter should not be less than 1.5m.
 3-21/2/2  The width of the stairs must not be less than 19cm, at a point 30cm away from the center.
3-21/2/3 The height of the step must not be more than 25cm, and the field of rise not less than 2m.

Figure 3-23  

 3-21/3  The fixed erect stairs: a fixed erect stairs is allowed to be used on the wall in exceptional cases to serve a small number of people that work in the site only, with a barrier installed on its side. This barrier extends to a distance not more than 1m above the surface’s level to which the stairs end at. And in case the stairs was more than 9m in height, it must be all covered with net barrier to protect from falling.
 3-21/4  The fixed tread stairs: it is allowed to be used under a condition that the leaning corner with the horizon must not be more than 60degrees, and the steps must have a width not less than 13cm, and the dimension between them should not be more than 20cm. all the mentioned means must be formed out of incombustible materials and against rust and weather phenomena, as well as it must be strong, stable, and well tied to the building.
 3-21/5  The automatic emergency stairs: it is allowed in cases that are approved by the civil defense, the use of the automatic stairs that goes down when it is used, and self-risen when it is left, under a condition that it must be approved by the civil defense.
 3-22  Exterior windows: barriers should not be set on the exterior windows that are found above the ground floor of the building, if it wasn’t easy to open and under a specific approval of the civil defense.
 3-22/1  When the exterior windows are used as emergency exits, their openings  must be wide enough for the people to get through easily.


Windows of the exterior facades:
Figure 3-24