رقم الدفاع المدنى 998

General Safty Instructions

a)     The fire detectors:

      These are sensitive instruments toward smoke or heat or flames and it detects the fire at its first stage in order to struggle and evacuate before the fire spreads, and to identify the right type of reagent which is a required must to identify and know the following:

i. The type of fire can be done (cables, flammable materials…. Etc)
ii. To know the geography of the place, such as the height of the ceilings and whether the place is opened or closed.
iii. To recognize the circumstances that surrounds the place, room temperature, and humidity. And if there is a strong air current of the region or have a strong magnetic field or is it susceptible to vibration or shock…
iv. The type of activity practiced in the region and whether the materials used can affect the performance of detectors (such as giving fumes or gases or radiation ). Or is there a loud noise or interference.
After giving aware to all these things mentioned above, you can determine the quality of organs suitable for the location to be installed.

b) Common types of detectors

• Smoke detectors:
It is a device that is used very much in fire detection systems, because it has the ability of detecting types of fires at their beginning. These devices are classified into three categories:

 Ion smoke detectors:

 It detects visible and invisible smoke as well as the small flying objects that tend upwards due to heat, and it is used in fires that are created by papers for example, because of the rapid combustion.

 Optical smoke detectors:

It detects the visible smoke and the great flying postings by higher temperatures, and it is used in the places where the cables or the substances (PCV ), but  it is very sensitive to cigarette smoke or similar things.

 The smoke detectors within the air-conditoning system streams.

 Factors that affect the performance of smoke detectors:

 Fumes, dust, or humidity.
 Current air faster than 1.5 m/sec.
 Paint fumes or detergents or chemicals, perfumes for cooling the smell in the air.
 Excessive smoking or similar things.
 Vibrations or shocks.
 Insects.
 Magnetic fields or radiation.
 Increase in the height of the ceiling.

 Heat detectors:

It can be installed in places that are subject to one of the factors that do not allow the use of smoke detectors, such as fumes and gases, which in its turn gives false alarms when smoke detectors are used. In addition to the use of heat detectors in places where there may be a quick ignition of any thick smoke.
There are two types of heat detectors:

1) Heat detector with constant temperature:
It is used when the temperature of the place exceeds the exact temperature that is shown on the detector.
2) Heat detector responsible for knowing the changing average of the temperature during a certain period of time.
And usually, the two types are used together.

• Factors that affect on the performance of heat detectors:

1) When the temperature of the room is very high or low.
2) Increasing in the height of the ceiling, where statistics proved that the revealed heat detector starts to sense the heat when the flame reaches to a certain level between the fire and the ceiling ‘ ¾ of the height of the fire.

• Flame detector

It is used in opened outside places where smoke or heat detectors could not work, or in places where gas fumes, or in places that have an in crease in the ceiling’s height. Such as the places where they maintain aircrafts, in which they use both smoke and fire detectors.  Which means that the smoke detectors’ response will function in a less way because the size of the place is too large.
It is also used in places that are subjected to rapid and substantial fire, such as fuel stations.
The flame detectors vary in their types according to the fuel diversity of potential fire.

• Factors that affect the performance of fire detectors:

1) The sun beam (and some procedures can be used to avoid this).
2) Telegraph.
3) X-Rays (X-RAY).
4) Powerful searchlights

The important actions that must be followed at the time of:

• Fire accident:

Fire incidents occur without a previous warnings because the means that are used to detect it neglects its happening especially when the house owners are asleep. But if the fire was discovered at the beginning, the means available can easily control it such as fire extinguishers or water etc….
We here mention the most important thing to do during fire incidents:
1) When you discover fire, take out all who is found in the place and let them be in a secured alone.
2) If the fire was at the beginning, go to the fire scene and try to know the causes in order to stop its development.
3) If the site was full of smoke then get out all of you quickly without taking anything, but just lean towards the floor to avoid the smoke that is usually at the top.
4) Inform the civil defense at the number 998 and give them a precision and calm description of the site.
5) Do not try to enter the fire site to take something personal or else you might be trapped there.

• Gas leak:

When you discover a gas leak, follow these instructions:
1) Do not spark a fire or a light bulb or any source of sparks because it will lead to an explosion.
2) Close the source where gas is leaking.
3) Open the windows and doors to ventilate the site and to decrease the dilution of gas.
4) Try to fix the source of leak and exchange the damaged parts.

• Drowning:

If someone fell in the swimming pool or pond or anything like that and you was near him, do of the following:
1) Stay calm.
2) If the drowned person was near you and you see him, you should support him with a rope or stick to raise and drag him quietly to the edge of the swimming pool or pond.
3) If the drowned person was away from you and he started to appear under the water surface, swim to him and try to rescue him from the back side. Do not save him from the front because it will paralyze your motion which will lead to the drowning of you both.
4) The most important thing you should do during your rescue process of a drowned person is to keep his head above the surface of the water in order to breathe.
5) After the drowned person is taken out of the water, start applying the first aid process.

• The safety of medicines:

Medicines are made of chemical substances that are used to treaet and cure diseases, and if they are misused or taken in big doses it will defeinitly cause danger to your health. So they must be used according to the medical prescription of the doctor.
Here are some things that should be taken into consideration:
1) Never take the medicine of another person even if your symptoms were similar.
2) Keep the medicine out of reach of s=children cause they are harmful for them.
3) Follow the instructions that are accompanied by the medicine such as shaking liquid medicines before use.
4) Do not take the medicine during driving or working in dangerous places.
5) Always be sure of the expiry date of the drug and get rid of the old one in a safe way.
6) Do not consider yourself a Dr. for you or to others and always do refer for the people responsible in this field.
7) Save your medicines according to the recommended temperatures.
8) Show your child the harmful effects of medicine that is not prescribed for them.

• Child’s safety:

The Child is everything in our life, they do lighten our life… they have innocence, curiosity, ignorance of dangers. For this their safety are there family’s responsibilities.
So we should all put our hands together in order to provide them the necessary safety which is shown in the following instructions:
1) Do not leave the children alone at home because they might play with things that are considered to be harm for both themselves and the house.
2) Keep an eye on the child when he enters the kitchen and always keep him away from the source of danger.
3) Always close the electrical boxes where it is easy for the child to put his finger in.
4) Keep the medicine in a safe place and out of reach of children.
5) Put sharp tools in a safe place away from the reach of children for their own safety.
6) Keep the devices and appliances used for cutting away from children.
7) Do not leave the children alone in the bathroom or pool even if they were wearing their floating clothes.
8) Put the medicines, detergents, and other chemical substances away from the children and do not use their empty cans.
9) Close the windows and balconies.

• Safety in children’s games:

Not all games are classified to be safe for the child. Some of them do have something wrong in their design and others in the substances used to manufacture them. So you should examine the game before buying according to its design and its substance and to take into consideration the following things:
1) Check if the game goes with your child’s age.
2) Note sharp edges and heads that may harm your child.
3) Be aware of the games that that contain small parts that a child can swallow or put in the ear or nose.
4) Be cautious of the small balloons that may explode or swallowed by the child which may cause harm to his breathe canal.
5) Prevent getting the games that have unsafe liquid.
6) Be sure that the games have the word not poisonous.
7) Make sure that the games that have the look of guns or bullets are not harm.
8) The family i.e. The mother and the father are responsible for choosing the right games for their child.

• Heating devices:

With the beginning of winter every year, the various heating devices spread among people. And using such devices may lead to some dangers because of the misuse and not taking aware of the safety instructions such as:

1) Electrical heater:

a) It is the most used and considered to be the safest mean if its owner was well aware to its dangers:
b) Do not connect it to bad wires or that are not applicable for the electricity current.
c) Do not put the electrical wires under the carpets or furniture.
d) Avoid putting the heater in the corridors inside the house especially at night to prevent it from falling over the furniture near it while the children are passing by.
e) Do not leave them for children without keeping an eye over them.
f) Avoid using it as a tool for warming or burning the (bakhor) or to dry the cloth.

2) Gas heater:

It is the most dangerous means for heating and it we prefer not to use it if there was a substitute for it. Its danger is revealed in the gas that is used to lit it which may cause suffocation when this gas leaks inside the house.
Here are some instructions to follow:
a) Make sure that the heater is fine and there is no leak of gas before you use it through examining the extensions connecting the cylinder to the heater.
b) The gas package must be away from the heater if possible and it is better if it was set outside the house.
c) Never put the heater near the furniture or in the corridors which may lead to fire.
d) Never leave it with the child in order not to play with it.
e) When you notice a gas leak, do not ignite fire or electricity and make sure the house is well ventilated.

3) Wood or coal heating:

It is an old way of heating that was well known to people, it is a source of good heating that is not expensive and its been used lately very much in bar, houses, and camps.
 And we should be alert while using coal and wood through the following steps:
a) Ignite the coal outside the house or the camp  until it is well burned then carry it inside.
b) Never close the doors or windows to prevent filling the house with carbon monoxide (CO) that has no color nor a smell and which leads to suffocation then to death.
c) Make a hole for the stove to allow the smoke and gas to go outside.
d) Do not leave the burned coal in the corridors or near the furniture or it may lead to fire.
e) Avoid sleeping in an enclosed place where there is coal because this cause to the increase of carbon dioxide which is responsible for death.
f) Avoid throwing the burned coal in the waste basket.
g) Let the family be aware of the dangers made by coal, and to follow the safety instructions.